Monday, January 28, 2019

Assessment of Students’ Satisfaction on the Restructured Essay

1.0 IntroductionAt the University of gold coast at that place ar reports that rooms pilotly make to take ii learners, ar now formalizedly allocated to five educatees (after minor passings), but unofficially sedulous by as many as eight or golf club to the knowledge of the university authorities A affair from the obvious hygiene and health hazards posed, what diverseness of ambience does this proffer for oeuvre after classes? All of which have brought just or so African universities to a state of serious deterioration. This is evident not sole(prenominal) to those who work or culture in those universities but to even the close casual visitor. (Association of African Universities, 2004) living accommodations is a basic human wishing in all societies and fundamental right of for every(prenominal) someone. In ripe countries, lodgment is more(prenominal) accessible to all categories of multitude including the poor and the needy as a result of subsidies from the government. The situation is not the same in developing countries of the world.In gold coast, for ex angstrom unitle, availableness to admit by the poor is preferably a difficult situation which is worsened by the harsh sparing conditions and poor enabling purlieu. Likewise, accessing housing facilities by gold coastian savants at the university is no exception, specially where such university happens to be the dream desti nation of most Ghanaians entering into tertiary governance. In tertiary institutions worldwide, the grooming of fitting to the savants population takes antithetic models.This complicates non-residential, where students source for their own accommodation. Residential, where the university houses all its students and dual-residential, where the university houses its student population for a plosive of time b bely, probably the freshman and final year, date the students during the re chief(prenominal)ing occlusion source for their own accommo dations. The experiences of students in tertiary institutions in sourcing and securing for their own accommodation around university communities be equally to be interesting and significant. However, it is value noting that, University of Ghana, the nations premier university has gone through a series of learning when it comes to how to accommodate its students, both undergraduates and postgraduates.1.1 Research businessUniversity of Ghana has undergone a series of reforms when it comes to the residential form _or_ system of government for its students. The ever increasing repress of enrollees in the institution is what defines this restructuring of the polity governing students accommodation over time. In the past 2 years what the incumbent vice chancellor of the university term as Decongestion has interpreted place in anticipation to the fulfillment of the university achieving efficiency in its handle of operation. The drive has in like manner been fast tracked by his sluttish inclination that the university should come upon a world-class status. Effective August, 2011, the university effectively implemented its decongestion form _or_ system of government allocating rooms to a maximum of cardinal (3) students and quad (4) students in the important halls and annexes respectively.This was done to address the problems of overcrowding that resulted in adverse make of poor sanitation, wring on residential utilities such as reading rooms and libraries, kitchen and washrooms, among causality(a) poor conditions for effective personal studies by students. Residential facilities have been increase to make the policy successful. Even though, the problem of inadequate accommodation for students is not entirely solved, the restructuring have been effective since its implementation, and it is worth investigating the effects of the impudent policy, whether it has achieved its goal or it is towards achieving its intend goal or otherwise. 1.2 Purpose of the proveThe primary(prenominal) reason why this search is being conducted is to evaluate the gaiety of students with the current students residential policy and its effects on their studies.1.3 Objectives of the study take officularised objectives of the study atomic number 18 as fol pocket- surfaces1. To assess students perception of sanitation in the halls/ societys now. 2. To assess students perception of security in the halls/ gilds now. 3. To investigate students accessibility to some(prenominal) basic hall/hostel utilities.1.4 Research Questions1. What is students perception of sanitation in the halls/hostels now? 2. What is students perception of security and harbor in the halls/hostels now? 3. What is the accessibility status of students to basic halls/hostels utilities now?1.5 Relevance of the studyAs a top university in Ghana and Africa and one which is striving to attain a world class status, adequate facilities should be provided and already existing ones imp roved, especially standards of military services and facilities which include providing conducive on-campus student housing facility. The above research provides the grounding for this study and highlights the areas of new knowledge which are needed to tenseness upon students delight of residential facilities in University of Ghana. A key question is what is the direct of students pleasure with regards to the students housing facility (superhigh frequency) in the stage setting of University of Ghana?The study contributes to a better understanding of SRS of UG. The results offer valuable feedback to the university authorities, facility man yearsrs and university hostel/hall administrators in terms of the present standards or the need for move on improvement of the SHF through effective rules and management. The results impart help to form guidelines in terms of tryst of rooms to students, maintenance and for future developments of student housing ensuring that the universi ty is able to provide adequate and contemporary on-campus SHF.2.0 Literature recapitulation2.1 IntroductionThis section reviews existing literature on the student residential facilities. It is mainly made up of previous studies, journals, articles, periodicals amongst other sources. They form the tercehand source of data to the study.2.2 The Concept of school-age child Residential Facility educatee housing has long been regarded as an essential component of the facilities provided by the high learning institutions in assisting students to expand their intellectual capabilities. According to Hassanain (2008), well mean student housing facilities (SHF) promote desirable gentilityal stunnedcomes and help to achieve the b drivewayer objectives such as social cohesion and obligated citizenship. An earlier study by Zahran (1972) reveals that a good student housing promotes interactions between roommates of contrastive backgrounds and specializations and thus broadens the student s knowledge. Amole (2005) argues that facilities such as study areas or meeting places for pedantic discussions and social gatherings provided in the student housing will encourage informal intellectual activities outside the students own faculties. Price et al. (2003) related student social growth to adequate facilities and Fay (1981) highlighted the importance of students gaiety in the SHF as a strategy to sharpen student development.Despite the importance of SHF, infinitesimal literature is available to evaluate student opinions of their housing facilities. Most studies on post-occupancy evaluation focus on family housing either public or clannish residences, investigating the interaction between owner-occupiers or tenants and their housing settings. bulk of these studies utilized the concept of housing satisfaction when evaluating the interactions between the residents and their physical surround (Amole, 2009b). Arguing that housing satisfaction can lead towards improving individuals quality of life, Salleh (2008) investigates dwelling, housing services and neighbourhood factors that influence the residents of secluded low-cost housing in Malaysia. The study revealed that the residents are more snug with their dwelling units and housing services if compared to their neighbourhood facilities. Elsinga and Hoekstra (2005) study housing satisfaction among European communities and find out that except in Austria, homeowners are more satisfied than the tenants because home willpower provides security, freedom and financial benefits.In contrast, James (2008) analyses the influence of age and eccentric person of ownership on the take of satisfaction and establishes that tenant satisfaction increases with the age at a much faster rate than the type of homeownership. However, student housing and family housing are not the same. Student housing comprises of basic bedroom units with other shared facilities such as bathrooms, toilets, laundry, kitchens, eart hy lounges and cafeterias located either per floor take aim, per pile or for the whole student housing accommodation (Amole, 2009a). On the contrary, the basic unit for family housing is a house which includes bedrooms, bathrooms, toilets and a living area all as part of the unit with other housing facilities such as playground, shops and school at the neighbourhood (Parkes et al., 2002). In addition, student housing offers limited security of ownership and freedom if compared to family housing.Therefore, the above findings whitethorn not apply in the context of student housing. Studies on residential satisfaction (RS) from the student perspective are mostly focused on factors affecting RS such as reasons for students to halt their previous residence (Cleave, 1996) and predictors of student residential satisfaction (SRS) (Foubert et al., 1998 Khozaei et al., 2010b). There are also studies on student housing with narrower scopes such as the effects of floor height on over-crowding (Kaya and Erkip, 2001) students perceptions on indoor comfort (Dahlan et al., 2009) students sense of attachment with a particular student housing (Khozaei et al., 2010a) head strategies for students staying in student housing (Amole, 2005) and the relationship between satisfaction and levels of surround (Amole, 2009b).These studies offer little guidance as to whether the students are satisfied with SHF provided. Among the limited studies on SRS are studies by Amole (2007, 2009a), Hassanain (2008) and Radder and Han (2009). Amole (2007, 2009a) investigates RS among students in Nigeria and the findings indicated a low satisfaction with the SHF provided. Radder and Han (2009) researched student satisfaction levels in South Africa and the findings indicated again a level of dissatisfaction with campus residences. Alternatively, Hassanain (2008) found that students in Saudi Arabia indicated a level of satisfaction with the SHF provided. However, the studies were conducted in countries where the culture and climate are various from that experienced in the Southeast Asia region, which is likely to affect the perceived environment of the built environment. Therefore, the results of the studies may not be applicable to the study context.2.3 maturation of the accommodation structureOriginally, halls in the university were built to accommodate two students per room. This provision was adequate for students because not many people sought for higher education. However, as the population of Ghana change magnitude and the need to seek higher education became prominent in the country, the number students enrolled apiece pedantic year increased rapidly as well. Residential facilities were increased and expanded to accommodate the ever increasing number of student intake which demanded restructuring of student residential policy given the limited resources the university had. In the midst of the reforms, beyond the expansion and modification of the original rooms to acc ommodate two persons at a time, the number increased to five (5) in a room officially, both in the main halls and the annexes.The continuous increase in the student intake amidst the unexpanded residential facilities meant that, not all students could be accommodated on campus, because, semiprivate hostels began to spring up to absorb the excess students who could not secure accommodation on campus. The private hostels motivation to make profit meant that they charge high prices which were unbearable by many students. This brought about one of the prominent terms that everyone who has passed through the quad walls of the University of Ghana is popular with Perching.2.4 The issue of PerchingThe word connotes students who illegally share residential facilities with official occupants of a room. This resulted in overcrowding in the halls, putting extreme embrace on washrooms, reading rooms, hall libraries, dry lines, among other facilities that were originally constructed for two p eople. This was happening who many reforms were going on. The two most popular reforms were the in-out-out-in and the in-out-out-out policies. The former meant that, all first year students were qualified for accommodation on campus, this fashioning did not mean automatic apportioning of rooms to freshmen but allocation was subject bal pecking for a YES or NO and second and third year students were to look for their own accommodation.Under this policy, final year students like first year students also qualified to be accommodated on campus it is however, worth noting that, even for the final year students, because of the limited number of rooms available, allocation of rooms was also done via balloting a yes or no by students. The latter policy, in-out-out-out raised a lot of eyebrows as it meant that only first year students were offered accommodation on campus. And for this policy allocation to level 100 students was automatic and assured. With this policy in place the problem o f perching worsened. The official number of occupants in a room close doubled for almost all the halls of residence. The adverse effects of poor situation created a lot of problems poor sanitation, insecurity, discomfort, which had direct impact on students health, hygiene, and efficiency.2.5 The current residential policyThe University of Ghana Hostels with a capacity of 26000 beds, which was to be built at the University of Ghana, Legon, with confederation between the university and six banks was a dream come alive as long as finding a solution to the perennial problem of accommodation in our public universities is concerned this was an assertion made by professor C. N. B. Tagoe, Vice prime minister of the university of Ghana (GhanaWeb, 2008). From the above statement I would to acknowledge the Contingency theory one of the prominent schools under the blustering Systems perspective of disposals. This theory as a branch of systems design emphasizes that design decisions are d ependent on environmental conditions. Contingency theory is channelise by the common orienting hypothesis that organizations whose internal features match the demands of their environments will achieve the best adaptation.Lawrence and Lorsch (1967), who coined the label contingency theory, argue that disparate environments place differing requirements on organizations. In a recent review article, Lawrence (1993) provides a partial list of factors that one or another theorist has considered important. They include size or scale, technology, geography, uncertainty, individual predispositions of participants, resource colony, national or heathen differences, scope and organizational life cycle. With concentration on the resource dependency factor, it is indicative that, the adaptation and realization of the said solution was heavily depending on(p) on the provision of financial resources by the six banks which are external to the organization.As the resources from the external e nvironment was provided by the six banks, the expansion of the residential facilities have been a reality indeed, making it potential to establish four different hostels which accommodates about 7, 120 students. It is a combination of these factors that made it possible for the decongestion exercise in the five traditional halls feasible. Currently, some of the hostels have been restructured into halls and force as the traditional halls. The standard rooms accommodate four (4) persons as the annexes do. With other stringent measures put in place to control perching it is believed that, the mark for which this restructuring was done is being worked towards. It must be stated categorically that, the main reason for this exercise is to improve students efficiency in the university.2.6 anterooms of anteroom/HostelsThe University believes in community living as an essential part of student life. It is therefore primarily residential, providing accommodation in mansion houses of Resi dence for both undergraduate and post-graduate students as well as flats and guest rooms for senior members and guests. There are five halls of residence (available to all students) and several Hostels. The present residencys and Hostels are as follows Each vestibule consists of junior members (students) and senior members (academic and senior administrative and master key staff), and is managed by a Council comprising members choose by persons belonging to the manor hall. The maitre d (or Warden in the case of Volta residence) is the Head of the dorm room. Each pressure group has Junior and elderly wonted(a) agencys for students and Faculty, respectively. A tutorial system offers an opportunity for counseling students and ensuring their well-being at both academic and social levels. Students maintain interaction with each other and the wider community through recognized clubs and societies. Each dorm has a kitchen and a dining hall to cater for students feeding. Chape ls and a mosque are also available for use by various religious denominations. A chaplaincy Board co-ordinate the activities of religious groups.Social life on the campus is nonionic mainly by the Students Representative Council and the Junior Common Room Committees which provide various kinds of social programmes. LEGON HALL Legon hallway was the first to be built on the permanent site of the University of Ghana at Legon and is, therefore, the Premier lobby of the University. Its foundation tablet was laid during the Michaelmas Term of 1951 and, in September 1952, the first undergraduates were accepted into residence. On Trinity Sunday, 31st May 1953, the first service was held in the Chapel and the first meal served in the Dining Hall. From these events, the Hall took Trinity Sunday every year as its birthday, celebrated by a common Feast for both its Junior and old Members. The Halls axiom, Cui Datum (To whom much is given), was selected from St. Lukes Gospel, in intuition of the special responsibility attached to the Halls seniority. superior Members of the University may be assigned as Fellows of the Hall by the Vice Chancellor and they usually keep their Fellowship for as long as they persevere with the University. Persons of academic distinction outside the University may be elected as Honorary Fellows at a General Meeting of Fellows.The rest of the rank of the Hall is made up of persons in statu pupillari. The governing body of the Hall is the Hall Council, members of which are Fellows of the Hall. The principal Hall Officers are The Master, the Vice-Master, the President of the Senior Common Room, the Senior Tutor, and the Hall Bursar. AKUAFO HALL Akuafo Hall was established with the particular date of prof D.A. Taylor, a Master-designate and a Hall Council in 1953. The Hall Council in 1954 decided to name the Hall Akuafo to stigmatise the generous gesture of the farmers of Ghana in giving money for the foundation of the University College. A crest which depicts a cocoa tree, an open book and a drum, designed by Professor W.J. McCallien, and a motto, laboremus et sapiamus, suggested by Professor L.H. Ofosu-Appiah, were adopted by the Council.A commemorative plaque with a Latin inscription composed by Professor L.H. Ofosu-Appiah was set up to show the gratitude of the Hall to the farmers of the country and to the British organization who gave the University College funds for the structure of the Hall. The Hall was officially opened on 17 February, 1956, but the first students, numbering 131, came into residence on the 5th October, 1955. The Hall has its own statutes governing the election of officers and the administration of its affairs. Once a year, the Master has to convene a meeting of the Fellows, who form the governing body, to receive his yearly report. The Senior Common Room is open to all Fellows and their guests, and the Senior faction Room to all senior members of the University. Senior Members may also n ecessitate students to the Combination Room.COMMONWEALTH HALL The first batch of students was admitted into residence in Commonwealth Hall at the beginning of the 1956-1957 academic year. In the alter Term of that academic year, Ghana attained its independence from Great Britain, and the Hall, now known as the Third Hall, was officially christened Commonwealth Hall to commemorate Ghanas admission into the Commonwealth of Nations. The official opening of the Hall was performed in March, 1957. It is, so far, the only all-male Hall of Residence in the University. The motto of the Hall, Truth Stands, was taken from a quotation from Satyre by John Donne (1572-1631) On a huge hill, cragged, and steep,Truth stands and hee that will Reach her, about must, and about must goe This motto combines both the physical situation of the Hall (on a hillside overlooking most of the University and beyond) and the proper pursuit of a University education, the search for truth. It is the only Hall of R esidence in the University which has a theatre and Amphitheatre for lectures and plays. The come out of Arms of the Hall depicts the strength and unity of purpose of members of the Hall derivation from the bonds of association enjoyed by the individual members of the Hall. High Commissioners of the Commonwealth countries in Ghana are accorded Honorary Membership of the Hall. There is a Hall Council which administers the affairs of the Hall, assisted by the Tutorial Board and the Senior Common Room Committee. VOLTA HALL Volta Hall started as the Fourth Hall in the 1959-60 academic year, on 16th November, 1960.The University College Council, on the recommendation of the Hall Council, named it Volta Hall. The Hall consists of the main hall originally designed to accommodate 82 students, and an annex with an original capacity for accommodating 198 students, the occupation of which began in January 1966. The motto of the Hall, chosen during the Halls tenth anniversary celebrations, is in the Akan language and it is Akokobere Nso Nyim Adekyee. This means that the mystery or knowledge of life and nature is a gift to women as it is to men. The Hall has a governing Body which comprises all the Fellows assigned to it and those elected by the assigned Fellows. The government of the Hall rests with this body which delegates some of its powers to a Hall Council. The Hall Council consists of ten members, including the Warden, the Deputy Warden, the Senior Tutor and the Bursar who are ex-officio members.The day-to-day administration of the Hall is carried out by the Warden with the help of the Senior Tutor, who deals with all students affairs, and the Bursar. MENSAH SARBAH HALL Mensah Sarbah Hall, the fifth Hall of the University, stands in the southern part of the campus. The Hall consists of a main Hall built around a quadrangle and a number of addes standing to the north and east. The last two south annexes are attached to the Hall. Until October 1991, Mensah Sarbah w as the only co-ed Hall of Residence in the University, which made it quite unique among the Halls. The governing body of the Hall is the Council, which is responsible to the full body of Fellows who form the Senate. Students affairs are handled by students own elected government headed by a President, while the general administration of the Hall is under the Master who is assisted by the Senior Tutor and Tutors on the one hand and the Bursar on the other. Other Hall Officers are the Chaplain, who is responsible for the Roman Catholic Chapel, the Prayer Room Warden, who is responsible for the Protestant Chapel, and the Librarian. Senior Common Room affairs are managed by an elected committee under the President of the Senior Common Room.The Hall is named after the famous Ghanaian jurist, writer and statesman, John Mensah Sarbah of Cape Coast. It has been customary for the Hall to celebrate the birthday anniversary of this great man every year. This anniversary is known as Sarbah Day and is highlighted by a dinner party and a get-together. The Hall has a crest designed to bring out the principal features of Mensah Sarbahs life. It consists of three elements a pair of scales, a fanny with a book resting upon it, and a hill surmounted by a castle. The scale signifies the legal profession, the stool and the book symbolise culture while the hill and the castle are intended to depict the familiar grace of Cape Coast with its many hills and forts. At the same time, the castle is intended to symbolise strength and honour. The Halls motto is Knowledge, Honour, Service three words which aptly summarise the guiding principles of Mensah Sarbahs life. VALCO TRUST HOSTELS The psyche to build a graduate hostel was first nurtured when Legon Hall Annex C was prepared exclusively for graduate students of the Hall. The quest for a qualified accommodation for graduate students gained attention when Valco conceive Fund offered to finance the twirl of a graduate hostel.As a f urther boost to this course, Legon Hall Annex C was converted into an Annex of the Hostel. The Valco Trust Hostel, donated to the University by the Valco Trust Fund to ease pressure on student accommodation, is a block of purpose-built, self-contained flats for 190 students. The Hostel, which was completed in June 1997, is the Universitys first hostel for graduate students. A second block with similar facilities was opened in January 2006. Located behind Mensah Sarbah Hall on the southern part of the campus, the flats are arranged in unity and double study bedrooms with en entourage shower and toilet. There is a shared kitchen for every twelve rooms.Facilities in the hostels include common rooms, washrooms and a restaurant. INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS HOSTELS The International Students Hostels are located on the southern part of the campus off the road to the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research. For a long time, it had been the dream of the University of Ghana to create and s trengthen links with other universities in order to enhance the international student presence on campus. The first phase was equip in June 1999 and the second in January 2006. The Hostels are co-educational and each has 43 single rooms and 85 double rooms. In addition, there are facilities such as a well-fortified security system, kitchenettes and restaurants.REFERENCESAmole, D. (2005),Coping strategies for living in student residential facilities in Nigeria, Environment and Behaviour, Vol. 37, pp. 201-19.Amole, D. (2009b),Residential satisfaction in students housing, ledger of Environment Psychology, Vol. 29, pp. 76-85.Association of African Universities (2004), Challenges Facing African Universities Selected Issues, African Studies Review (2004) Vol. 47, No. 1, 1-59Dahlan, N., Jones, P., Alexander, D., Salleh, E. and Alias, J. 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