Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Virtual Culture - Essay ExampleOur intertwined lives have made these Disney figures as much a reference of our family as our own parents or siblings.Information technology has made our lives easier and more complex at the same time. Working professionals are on a 24/7 duty thanks to e-media (mobile and email). This has created the maternal responsibility of parents even harder. In these fractious times, the virtual gardening can serve a part of the parents role by portraying the good and evil to the children and instilling the core ethnic values in the childrens minds. 4The virtual culture created by the information age is apparent in our lives as well and oddly for children. Since close to of the virtual figures are projected towards children, it is they who get inspired and affected the most. Every child searches for the provoke Potter in his/her own life and become a part of that magical world. So it is forthwith up to the creationists of the virtual cultures how to infl uence the children in shaping up their lives. As children gain easier access to information, the role of virtual culture will become ever so important in creating better leaders for tomorrow. 4Each and everything in our lives can be segmented into either good or bad. Each suasion will have two perspectives i.e. either it will be accepted or it will be rejected. Same is the case with newly establishing virtual culture. Conservatives whitethorn argument that each society has strong root in its heritage and history that makes up the culture and traditions. For these conservatives, adopting the new way will be difficult and may even be dismissed as a totally not acceptable variegate. For these fundamentalists, cultural traditions will definitely be eroded from adopting the virtual culture. The values created by their ancestors that have built the culture will change and it will be considered as a bad change. 1On the other hand, sociologists may argue that culture is an ever changing e ntity. Newer values and beliefs are entrenched each day in our lives which gradually changes that cultural tradition. For these theorists, change is a positive force and these changes enhance the cultural traditions. Change fosters patterned advance and since the information revolution is already bringing the virtual culture to our boundaries, it only seems sensible to embrace the change with arms wide open. In these changing times, with children coming into contact with information more rapidly than most adults, the virtual culture can create the same values that twenty years ago our parents use to teach us. From this point of view, the application of virtual culture looks good. 1What image of this country do US movies and picture shows give to people abroadHollywood is considered as the heart of the movie industry in the world. ikon standards are set according to American movies as they are considered as the benchmark for quality. Similarly American television and soaps are amo ngst the most watched in the whole world. So are these movies and TV shows watched because they portray the realness The answer to this question is No. As with most products in the world, movies and TV programs only show things what the viewers insufficiency to see. This viewer oriented
Holy Spirit in the New Testament - Essay guinea pigSince He knows each person perfectly and it is understood that people think differently, He can manoeuvre information to people in ways that they would comprehend it (Acts of the Apostles 27). In this case, the Holy Spirit plays a significant role in transformation and teaching believers on what to do as Christian as well as fellowship among Christians through His presence. Also, the Holy Spirit is included when baptizing believers as Matthew 2819-20 states that 19Therefore go and make disciples of both nations, baptizing them ina the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20and teaching them to obey everything I hold back commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.If we are to deal with the origin of Christ when He entered here on erath in Human form, He was conceived by the Holy Spirit. Matthew 120-21 says But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him i n a dream and said, Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21She pass on confound stemma to a son, and you are to give him the name messiah,c because he will save his people from their sins. Also, when Jesus was Baptized, the touch of God appeared. In Matthew 316-17 it was stated that 16As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up surface of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. 17And a voice from heaven said, This is my Son, whom I love with him I am well pleasedThe communication of Jesus with his Father is the Holy Spirit.A passage in Luke 1021 says 21At that time Jesus, full of joy through the Holy Spirit, said, I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your good pleasure. How c an we today understand this gift of Jesus The Holy SpiritJesus during His time here on earth uttered that if He will not leave then the Holy Spirit not come furthermore, In John 1426 it is stated that 26But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you. 27Peace I leave with you my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your police van be troubled and do not be afraid. T The goal of life is to know to the full who I amIn 2 Timothy 19, in Pauls letter to Timothy, it was stated that 9who has rescue us and called us to a holy life-not because of anything we have done but because of his own purpose and kindness. This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time, We are created for Gods purpose.How can we reform the lost contemplative dimension of lifeWe lost our lives due to sin and in this case, we lost everything in life including our souls. However, when Christ died for us, he freely gave us everything including our access with God. It would be once again mathematical if we accept the Lord Jesus as our personal Lord and Savior ( and admit that we are sinners (Repentance) the green passage for this is found on John 316. Also, 1
Monday, April 29, 2019
Chicago Jazz and the Great Migration - Term reputation ExampleIt goes without a word that history on the record can never disappear whatsoever especially the one that cling on the mind. In this respect, jazz and the great migration are histories that people dormant relish and cherish. They form tremendous memories to people, particularly, of Chicago. In the 20th century, blacks began to move from southern cities to the North in reckon of decent living. The movement was facilitated by availability of train that provided easy access to the famous Chicago, as salubrious as other due northern cities. The mass movement came about after the World War I started in Europe and no foreign workers could immigrate to America. Therefore, many blacks migrated to Chicago and other cities located in the North. It is the most influential newsprint of the black called the Chicago Defender that encouraged this great migration. Thus, with the newspaper blacks thought that the North could be the land of freedom for them. In fact, some blacks would refer it as the promised Land. They had suffered a lot in the course of slavery and had a high quest for liberty (Grossman, James R.79).It is through this mass movement that jazz musicians found their way to the North. The jazz musicians came to northern of Chicago on disseminated sclerosis riverboats. It was after the closure of New Orleans in Storyville district, in the year 1917. The jazz migration formed a portion of the mass movement experienced in Chicago. From Mississippi river, jazz entered Chicago through the Illinois rally Railroad over the 12th street station. The Railroad is situated 200 miles from Mississippi river in the eastern direction where the riverboats had docked. The mass movement was called The Great Migration. The migration was mainly composed of African Americans that moved from south to north of Chicago. The immigrants came to Chicago for the same whys and wherefores that other people in the world migr ated to other
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Answer questions on the economy with the explanation and examples - endeavor ExampleWith increasing income, the require for a luxury goods increases sharply as compared to necessity goods.In this case, there is a larger proportionate convince in the quantity demanded when a change in readiness of the good occurs. When the footing of the good organizes, the demand will fall proportionately more hence, the check gross will fall. But when the price of the good falls, the demand will show up proportionately more hence, the total receipts will rise as well.In this case, there is a smaller proportionate change in the quantity demanded when a change in price of the good occurs. When the price of the good rises, the demand will fall proportionately less hence, the total revenue will rise due to the higher(prenominal) price. But when the price of the good falls, the demand will rise proportionately less hence, the total revenue will fall as well.It refers to the maximum price that has set by the government or an agency. The concerns cannot rise above this maximum rate but can fall below it. For Example Maximum price of the oil fixed by the government in Third world countries.It refers to the minimum price that has been set by the government or an agency. The concerns cannot fall below this minimum rate but can rise about it. For Example Minimum wage rates fixed by the government.An economic law that states that, as the quantity of a variable factor is increased, the marginal product of these additional units will, at a particular proposition point, start to diminish and be less than the marginal product of the former unit.In the short impart of the firms production, a few of the input factors are considered to be fixed in nature. Whereas in the long run of the firms production, there are no fixed factors as the association can vary the quantity being used over the period of time.The profits are maximized when MR=MC at an output level of Q as shown in Figure 3. If the output is less than Q, the MR exceeds MC. This
Saturday, April 27, 2019
The Jungle - Essay Examplecauses Jurgis to lead a keep of begging and crime, illustrating how it is the dusts willing abuse of the common man that creates the problems of the criminal lower categorize while the upper class go aways just as criminal in working to abuse the system for their own welfare. The concept of socialism is first introduced as Ona and Jurgis are planning their wedding feast and grows to become one of the central themes of the book.It is Grandmother Majauzskiene who first mentions the word Socialist to Jurgis. She describes the capitalist system It was easy to bring them, for wages were really much higher, and it was only when it was too late that the poor people found emerge that everything else was higher too. They were like rats in a trap, that was the truth (95). It would seem clear that whatever she defines herself as would be the opposite of the system in place. Just before she introduces the word socialism, though, a suggestion of what it might taut is offered, By and by they would have their revenge, though, for the thing was getting beyond human endurance, and the people would rise and come to the packers (95). This seems to suggest something violent and destructive, which frightens the simple man.Jurgis learns more about socialism through Bush Harper. Harper characterizes socialists as people who could not be bought, and would not combine or make any sort of a dicker (384). Later, Jurgis suddenly finds himself at the center of a Socialist rally and, more surprisingly, becoming caught up in the words that are said. As the speaker denounces the capitalist system, which has already been battered brutally end-to-end the novel, the ideas of Socialism are brought forward. The way that Sinclair presents them makes them seem not nearly as frightening as the ideas of collectivism have been to the modern reader. He talks about how the Socialists would give more power to the people, would provide them would well food, clothing
Friday, April 26, 2019
Analyzation of literary devices as demonstrated in the lyrics of a pains - Essay ExampleYou just need to find that moment to shine.In his review of the tenor, Lamb intelligibly explains what it is that influenced the song and how amazing it was that Katy Perry was able to take a complex passage from a Jack Kerouacs refreshful The Road and turn it into a song that transcends all generations and eras of time. He describes the song in great situation and analyzes both the pros and cons of the song.Songfacts takes a behind the scenes look of the making of the song Firework and the inspiration behind the song and music video. It features interviews with the song composer, Katy Perry herself and the director of the music video. In this article, we get a glimpse into the idea and private reason behind the song and why the song has become an anthem for most people.The article takes a close look at the family background and struggle towards success of Katy Perry. It gives us a glimpse o f her failures and her successes on the way to becoming the number one pop icon that she is today.A listing of all the grand events that occurred in the life of Katy Perry from the day she was born, her career struggles, and eventual success in the music field. It is an article that pays attendance to the little known facts about Ms. Perry that have influenced the singer that she has become.Source for the lyrics to the song Firework. It has a scratch where readers can leave comments about how the song has affected them or their lives. It helps one truly understand the analogical meaning that the song carries for the common folk.Seeing a firework going off during celebrations gives us a sense of hope and happiness and that is exactly what the song Firework by Katy Perry is all about. Born Katheryn Hudson on October 25, 1984 in California, Katy was the middle daughter of 2 devout Christian minister parents. (Mock and Wang, 2012). The child who showed a roll in the hay for singing was taken by her parents to Nashville in the
Thursday, April 25, 2019
The role of radiological imaging in the diagnosis of a child with abdominal bother - Essay ExampleIn children, one of the most common symptoms is abdominal suffer. Many parents attest that their children would ever so complain of some tummy aches. In many cases, these episodes are known to be insignificant. Many children would seduce various thresholds of tolerating pain3. On the other hand, the parents would have a variation in their threshold of the appropriate prison term of bringing their child to the hospital. The paediatric and paediatricians rooms of emergency are always full of parents in pauperisation of attention from the doctors. In this case, the physician need to decide the patients who warranty for more work up with imaging and the type of patients who require the referral to the paediatric surgeon.4 The surgeons need to decide the types of patients that warranty the interventions of the surgeon and the patients who need medical watching or management. Even thoug h the presentation in a child with abdominal pain whitethorn be common, all the individual children would give unique challenges to the involved physicians.The abdominal pain pathophysiology is complex. The abdominal electric organ stimuli together with the gastrointestinal tract, move through the sympathetic nerves towards the ganglia of the thorax and the spinal cord. The shown stimuli have been account to be poorly localized. The pain coming from the visceral glands is equally poorly localized, and is always believed to be the midplane that is linked with the secondary autonomic effects like vomiting, nausea and pallor. In many cases, the many pain location may characterize the organ that is affected. The Epigastric pain comes from duodenum, stomach, pancreas, biliary system, or liver. Periumblical pain, comes from the small intestine. The infraumblical pain, on the other hand comes from the rectum and colon, ovaries and uterus, kidneys and bladder. The ovarian and renal pain i s always located laterally to the side that is affected.
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Russia 1917-1941. pinch of Nazism in Germany, World War II - Essay ExampleWhen the autocratic rule of Russia crumbled in the revolution of 1917, it was due to a variety of underlying and systemic causes that were rooted deep in the empires history. These frugal, loving and political problems were reinforced and exacerbated mainly by the First World War (1914-1918), but besides by the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, that scored and resulted in the same kinds of problems and revolts experienced in 1905. The policies imposed by Nicholas II, his predecessors and his ministers mostly served to aggravate quite a than to alleviate the discontent of the Russian wad. These policies and resulted in the riots and strikes that led to revolution in 1917.The situation in Russia some the turn of the century was complicated and the nation was difficult to rule. There existed a huge diversity of ideologies and identities inwardly the Empire, making it hard for the tzar to keep his authority a nd control. The influence that his two most recent predecessors had on the empire was contradictory Alexander II was known as the Tsar Liberator, and he introduced many reforms, such(prenominal) as the Emancipation Edict and, Nicholas I, known as the Reactionary Tsar, with his counter-reforms. Tsar Alexander III, who was laureled Tsar in 1894, wanted to uphold the principles of autocracy like his father, meaning the three reactionary principles autocracy, orthodoxy and nationalism. Tsar Nicholas II was a weak and indecisive leader, unable to delegate his tasks and he generally cared too curt for his people. One might argue that the only loyalty the Tsar had was to divinity fudge, due to the orthodox belief that he was chosen and guided by God himself. Article One of the Fundamental Laws of the Empire stated that God himself commands that this supreme authority be obeyed.The causes of the 1917 revolution included Russias social, economic and political problems. Socially, Tsarist Ru ssia stood well butt end the rest of Europe in its industry and farming, resulting in few opportunities for advancement on the part of peasants and industrial workers. The discontent came from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime, and their considerable lack of rights. The rapid industrialisation of Russia also resulted in urban overcrowding and poor conditions for urban industrial workers. Economically, widespread inflation and famine in Russia contributed to the revolution. These economic stimuli originated in Russias outdated economy and the Tsars failure to modernize it. The rural agrarian economy struggled to produce adequate food to feed the cities each year, and despite the vast expansions under Sergei Witte of the railway systems, they also lacked the ability to effectively transport the food into the cities. Factory workers also suffered as Russias young and undeveloped industrial base sought-after(a) to catch up with the rest of Europe. The y had to endure terrible working conditions and low wages. The sporadic riots did not create a calm context in which to develop an industrial foundation peacefully or methodically. Politically, the people of Russia resented the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II. Most segments of Russian society had reason to be dissatisfied. They had no representation in government, and the Tsar remained out of touch with the people. This was seen on the Bloody Sunday of 1905 where his people came in peaceful demonstrations to his palace, which he had left, and were shot at by his army. Ultimately, a combination of these three factors, coupled with the development of revolutionary ideas and movements, situated the foundations for the Russian Revolution.This discontent of Russias people
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
2.4 Consumer conduct & Holidays - Case Study Examplebe able to plan for a holiday successfully since both time they do so, other more important activities come in between and light up them recollect otherwise about having a holiday. This makes holiday to be categorized under the fourth quadrant of self-satisfaction. In this quadrant, the holiday consumer would be having information about a holiday place, they harbourt been to that place before, they take holdnt planned to go there but the thought to do so might take away well(p) been an impulse one which just came immediately the thought to go for a holiday wheel spoke in their minds. They then visit the place, they might feel the place is really refreshing and dangerous for a holiday, after that, they will decide to treat themselves in the holiday place and reserve some good time. Therefore this is the model of Do-feel-learn.This may contrast a bit with the CBDP model where the holiday consumer will have to recognize the n eed for the holiday first, they then go on an information search about the dress hat or appropriate place they would want to go to for a holiday, they would then evaluate and analyze the divers(a) alternatives they just found from the search to decide on the best and appropriate holiday purchase, they then make the decision to make the appropriate purchase which is making the decision to visit the place of choice, and finally have a post-purchase evaluation on whether the holiday place of choice was the best or failed to meet the expectations (Schiffman, Kanuk, & Hansen.H, 2008). The consumers who pulmonary tuberculosis the CBDP model therefore seem to be those consumers who are keen about what they purchase before they do the purchase. They most of the time work on a budget and would choose what will fit in their budget. This therefore is a more appropriate way to do a holiday purchase than to just carry out a blind purchase on something you have no idea about.Consumers normally carry out information search for all the products before they make the purchases. The information search on these
Monday, April 22, 2019
Futuristic surmisal in Designs - Essay ExampleThe proximo of technology is still promising. Futurologists have used designs to augur straight offs impossibility that may become a reality tomorrow. The challenges and problems argon many and require spate to think beyond the current situation. Given that the problems can be predicted, designs can be used to predict the preferable solutions and alternatives for coming(prenominal) problems. The Foragers, Stop and Scan, Afterlife and EM Listeners testament be the designs that will be analysed in the paper. The four designs be a representative of four significant concerns the state of food security when the terra firma is overpopulated as delineate by Foragers, dilemma of insecurity posed by terrorism as represented by Stop and Scan and EM Listeners. Finally, Afterlife is meant to be used domestically when euthanasia will become so common that it will be allowed in private homes for personal use. The designers in these projects ar e concerned with the expressive, functional, and communicative possibilities of the emerging technologies as well as the ethical consequences of the technology in tender and cultural milieu. The designs, which are presented in photographic forms, are not predictive. They are meant to pose the question, what if? The designs create, imagine, dream and imagine on the technology that can mediate the world preferred by the people. As it will be implementn, Dunne and Raby designs classified under the banner between reality and the impossible are a reflection of the obscure and troubled people who are ready to explore solutions to the next challenges. The essay will argue that these designs are worth critical consideration and are a wake call by the designers to the concerned stakeholders to see the possibility and or impossibility of the projects and act before it is too late. The essay will propose that more than critical designs are supposed to be created considering the technolog ical future of the world. One such design is the wizard that could predict the future when the resources are completely depleted and the people turn to the unimaginable polythene materials for food. The hypothesis about the future Between Reality and Impossible is a series of designs that Dunne and Raby made and were exhibited at the external design biennial in Saint Etienne (Regine 1). The designers also produced three dimensional designs that have been used to description on the pressing issues about the development and growth of mankind. As speculative designs, the selected pieces heighten the experiences of the viewers to get wind future themes. They depict four different scenarios that speculate on four pressing issues in the globalised society.The future is said to be unpredictable time period after the present, but is can be foreseen establish on the present situations (Gaddis 56). The occurrence of the future is inevitable because time and other laws of physics exist. Th e resulting inevitability of the future has prompted the present to classify existence into permanent, temporary, and eternity (Gaddis 56). Permanence refers to that existence that will see the whole of the future while temporary is designated to the existence that will come to an end. The study of future or futurology has been hard-pressed by modern practitioners, especially the emphasis of the prediction of an alternative future that is probable and preferable. Future has been explored by dint of machination, cultural practices, designs and other ways. For example, there was a futurism movement during the early 20th century that explored most media of art such as sculptures, theatre, music, architecture, and painting among others for their predictability. During this time, futurists were highly interested in the ideas of the future and were not held captive by the issues of past.
Dancing in a Winter Wonderland Managing Stakeholders - Case Study instanceThere are different theoretical approaches to stakeholder management in an organizational context. They are agency theory, dealing cost economics, competitive theory, institutional theory, stakeholder theory, and electronic net theory. In the context of event management, it is worth considering the stakeholder theory and the network theory. The stakeholder approach deals basically with groups or individuals who can affect the performance of an organization and whose interests are taken burster of by the management (Freeman, 1984 Frooman 1999) Power, legitimacy and urgency are identified as the basic attributes of stakeholders (Mitchell et al 1997) The network approach talks about the positions of different actors created by the links among them. (Thorelli, 1986) A different kind of accessible relationship among actors is assumed in the network analysis (Galakiewicz, 1996) gum olibanum actors, activities and resources are the basic concepts in a network (Johanson and Associates 1994) The actors in the network own and control resources and carry out activities by combining resources (Sharma, 1993) musical composition stakeholder theory is mainly static the network theory deals with the dynamic process involved in changing the network. Thus event management encompasses the basic elements of both of these theoretical approaches. Therefore it becomes important that the event is conducted skillfully so that it becomes valuable to all the stakeholders. One of the most cited reasons for the failure of any event is the lack of resources. lose of resources can be identified by the inability of the event management to attract more sponsors and donors. Thus the success of the events depends largely on the support from stakeholders. This adds to the proposition that the event managers should manage the relationship with the stakeholders more efficiently. The lit on event management has estab lished the relationships between the management of events and the stakeholders (e.g. Getz, 1997 Watt 1998 Long, 2000 Lvendahl, 2000) However it needs to be mentioned that there is no documented evidence of the application of the stakeholder theory in the event management contexts (Reid & Acordia 2002)
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Colonial America - Essay ExampleEach of these city-states or polis had its own customs, laws and way of life (Hornblower et al, 2004). Initially these city-states were ruled by a few wealthy work force but gradually the administrative system became democratic. Athens was the largest city-state in Ancient Greece and its society was divided into the upper, diaphragm and lower curriculumes. However despite these differences ancient Greeks were bound by a parking lot heritage and common language just like American people speak a common language. Greek citizens were dexterous in the arts, music, and they played games represented by the Olympics. There was a system of assemblies in which upper class citizens discussed issues of government and suggested changes, very much like the modern parliament. Ancient Rome was however ruled by an emperor and the Roman government balanced out political power between three incompatible branches comprising of the Executive branch, the Legislative br anch and the Judicial branch. The consuls who supervised the Senate and the army controlled the executive branch along with the mayors and revenue enhancement collectors (Hornblower et al, 2004). Only adults were allowed to vote or elect rulers. The legislative branch consisted of 300 senate members who owned land and were choose by the consuls. The concept of senate members is still a part of the administrative system in America.
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Database Design Process Project (Preparation) - raise ExampleMoreover, it offers specific built-in templates that facilitate the users to choose well suited ERD template according to the ineluctably and requirements of the projects. Once a template has been selected by the user, the shapes (entities, relationships, category, etc.) lowlife be drawn by just tweak and drop method. The entity represents a table of a database and the relationship shape represents the relation between two tables which can be one to one, one to many, etc. After dragging an entity to the drawing board, the user can tack an entity / table telephone, diverse columns and their name according to the requirements of the table, the data types of the created columns, selection of primary hear, check / tick if a particular column must have a value and the column referred to as the foreign constitute (if any). In this way, the user can add several entities / tables as per the requirements of the database des ign under eruptment. After adding all the entities to the drawing board, the user can add relationships between the entities by relating the primary list with foreign key and this can be done by dragging the particular shapes. Moreover, the MS Visio provides the functionalities to add triggers, indexes and notes on entities and their relationships. When the users be done with creating the entity relationship diagram, the file can be saved in .vsd format in the toughened drive of the PC / laptop moreover, the saved file can be edited or updated when required. The MS Visio offers the functionality of viewing the complete diagram, page setup and printing the diagram (Sethi, 2006). It is required for the Riordan Manufacturing Virtual Organization to develop policies, guidelines, standards and practices to put in place for the use of the MS Visio. I would suggest the organization to use the ceremonious standards of ERD elements to represent an entity t present should be a rectangul ar shape along with one row having the entity name and one rectangular shape should only represent one entity. The primary key of the entity should be equal by a key symbol, the relationships between the entities should be represented with dotted lines and the color of the foreign key attribute should be red. Furthermore, the overall ER diagram should be easy to understand and precise to debate by everyone, therefore, it is recommended that the users should add proper notes that would assist and aid the users to understand the diagram completely. It is pertinent to mention here that the MS Visio offers the same template to develop ER diagrams. The practices and guidelines for naming convention of the tables and attributes should be clarified to the employees and users of the MS Visio in the virtual organization. I would suggest to the management of the organization that the table / entity name should always deject with tbl characters, for example the entity name tblCustomer i-e t he entity or table having the information of the customer. The pre-characters of the attribute name should be understandable having low character of the table name and capital characters like the attribute name cFName can be articulate as the first name of the customer. The employees of the virtual organization should be given proper training on the guidelines, standards and practices for using the MS Visio to develop the ER diagrams. The employees should be guided on saving the file names and should have
Friday, April 19, 2019
The line of work of debt crisis and the concept of its solutions in Mexico - Dissertation ExampleThe debt crisis is one of the major concerns of any less(prenominal) developed sylvan or any developing country. Starting from the year 1980, every developing country has gone with the phases of debt crisis. Generally, when there economy was performing well lots of private banks and foreign investors invest money. But, as these countries economies were base on mainly one or two sectors, any kind of downfall in the quest of the finished products of those sectors ensures the downfall of their economy. As their economical growth was slowing down continuously, they were facing a fiscal crisis. Moreover, as the interest rates started to grow, they curb to repay more to the borrowing country/institutions. In the fact of Mexico, the same thing was happening. Demand for their manufacturing goods started to slow down with the developing economical crisis in the world. As a result their inc ome from export was affected and hence they were not in op target to repay their loans. That triggers the debt crisis. To overcome this speckle they have to ask for the intervention of the IMF. The intervention of IMF brings about monetary as well as commerce names reformation in the country. As the succession goes by, Mexico was able to get rid of the crisis.... INTRODUCTION In finance debt is referred as the purchasing power of tomorrow, in view of today without earning the same. A debt crisis can be defined as a situation when a country or an institution or an individual is overwhelmed by a huge financial borrowing, which in their present financial correct they are otiose to overcome. It can be in terms of real goods or money. In any country it is a situation where the concerned country is not in a position to repay the borrowing they have taken from outside the country (from the valet de chambre Bank or any private banks) and it is surpassing the net income of the nation . Generally any country can ask for borrowings by means of long term loans (Commercial Bank), scam term loans (Commercial Bank), loans from security market by means of bond and debentures and official grants and loans (low interest rate and mellowed repayment term). In Latin America, the debt crisis of 1980s was due to their official grants and their Long their long term loans from commercial-grade banks (Oliveri, 1992). The debt crisis is an issue of major concern for any less developed or developing country. Generally these less developed countries have to borrow money from different leading countries or the private banks or World Bank for their growth and economic sustenance. While giving them these advances the lenders take into consideration the current economic condition of the country, future growth prospects, political stability, inflation etc. But in the due course of time due to several reasons which may be political or may be economical that incident nation may face a situation where they are not in a position to repay the loan within stipulated frame of time. Then that particular country is supposed to be in a debt
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Compare and lineage - Essay ExampleThe two writers Dillard and Wolf devote given their different essays the understructure of how close is approached or embraced. Since last is an ultimate circumstance, which is unavoidable, the question raised is on how to face it (Iowa Council of Teachers of English 49). Death is the antagonist in the two essays. Answers on how to face death vary since having a troth against death or encompass and accepting peaceful death can be options. The climax of the essay comes when the two moths face their death. Dillard in her essay has portrayed an approach to death, which involves struggling and running away. Contrarily, Woolf has given death an acceptable approach in that death is experienced calmly (Woolf 7).The two essays by Annie Dillard and Virginia Wolf compare superficially in that they have a similar title death of a moth, which go on to exemplify the theme of conflict with death. In the two essays, the writers have focused on depicting how the moths face their death. The moths are the characters of the essays propelling the theme being addressed (Woolf 8). The essays also compare in that the moths seem to be conscious of the fate waiting, which in this case is death. The two essays are also similar because they show that it does not matter the form of death or approach of dying, death is definitive (Iowa Council of Teachers of English 51).Woolfs moth rotates around the window its life has been contain around the window pane, which happens to be the same spot where it meets its death. Dillards moth meets its death after being fire by a candle flame while flying around it. In the two essays, the approaches to death are different taking into consideration the description from Woolf and Dillard (Iowa Council of Teachers of English 52). In wolfs essay, she portrays the moth in a way that it accepts death the moth is brave enough to embrace death in a ennoble manner. Contrarily, in
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
The European sovereign debt crisis during 2010-2011 - Essay ExampleMatters involving monetary obligation crisis have in the recent years being reported globally, as the level of the sovereign arrears of whatever of the financial scheme of the world have risen, giving them a threat of failure to pay. A fiscal network is thought to be in an obligation crisis once its presidential term has failed to pay its debt. However, not either of the nations that are at present in debt disaster has defaulted, but they involve extremely high government debt balances, and their bond output spreads in the securities of the government have gone up, as a result, there is delegation of their sovereign ratings for credit. When an area suffers this crisis, it might be able to undergo a sudden discontinue of inflows from the external capital be progress to of major loss of capitalist confidence regarding the thrift. The Eurozone had kept an overall acceptable short-term financial credit between 1999 to the year 2007. However, there existed large as well as continuing inequities in the region. Greece, Spain, Portugal, and to a lesser extent Ireland, sustained massive current account shortfalls, and Germany, Netherlands, along with Luxembourg, had profits in the account (Braga & Vincelette 222). The providers of the large plus extended current account losses are dissimilar across these countries. As years went by, the deficits balances of the current financial standing have been change magnitude, also, a decrease to the surpluses in the other(a) countries. The existing crisis on debt commenced with the demise of the banking corporation in Iceland in the year 2008, and spread to some of the countries in Europe like the Ireland, Portugal, as well as Greece in the year 2009. At the beginning of the import half of this year, reports concerning the debt crisis on the United Sates also blew up (Economic Review 1 Braga & Vincelette 222-225). The crisis originated from various facto rs and had tremendous implications to the economy of the European countries. GDP Growth in the Eurozone, Q4 2009Q1 2011 (Belkin, & Mix, & Nelson, 14) Source International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook, April 2011 (Belkin, & Mix, & Nelson, 4). Reasons john the Financial Crisis The debts predicaments are featured to pro-cyclical economic policy in the period preceding the economic crisis. The countries impinged on had being managing large and untenable fiscal deficits for several years, largely funded through borrowing. The Government of Greek utilise deficit spending to increase extraordinarily, the peoples standard of living as the debt funded the joblessness societal benefits, raise the remuneration of public workers along with pensioners income, and sustained a mutually respectful labor market. The evident cause of the European Debt Crisis is also the changing of the European Monetary Union (EMU) from financial stimuli to fiscal consolidation in the year 2009. Until tha t year, the EMU together with the entire European Union (EU) and other main financial systems followed the IMF tramp in the upshot of Lehman Brothers insolvency, to promote global demand by way of increasing government spending. The
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Jane Eyre EssayHow does Charlotte Bronte engage the readers benevolence for Jane Eyre in the opening two chapters of the novel? Charlotte Bronte the third daughter of Patrick and Maria Bronte, who was born in 1816 at Thornton, a moorland village near Bradford and was just rough four when the family moved to Haworth. There, she, like the rest of her family was to spend almost all her life. The family liked privacy and since Mr. Bronte was busy with work and their mother was ill with cancer and died after provided 18 months at Haworth, the children spent all their time together and were extremely close. The make who looked after Mrs.Bronte verbalize that they were different from any children she had ever seen because they seemed so quiet and serious. When Charlotte was eight, Mr. Bronte sent her, with Maria, Elizabeth and later Emily, to a school for the daughters of clergy at Cowan Bridge. He thought education would be useful to his girls in the future, but their experience s were all too mistakable to those Charlotte Bronte gives Jane Eyre at Lowood. Maria and Elizabeth both died of tuberculosis, after less than a year, and Charlotte and Emily were taken away from the school and returned to analyse at home with their father.Charlotte considered herself to be truly plain, even ugly, and did not really hope for marriage, although she received tether proposals. Like Jane Eyre, she was always sad that she was not more obviously attractive. Beauty was something she admired and longed for. At roe Head, she worked hard, was sure-fire and made several long life friends. She hated the job but when she was not article of belief or marking books she had to work at mending the pupils clothes. She became so depressed and ill that she had to leave. The next thought was that the girls should set up a school of their own.In order to finish training for this, Charlotte and Emily went to study in Brussels. As well as learning much, however, she fell in love wit h Monsieur Heger, the husband of the head of her school. No real relationship could ever develop, apart from friendship, and she left Brussels broken- ensureted. This Experience provided the ideas for two of her books The Professor and Villette. At the age of 38, Charlotte agreed to marry Arthur Bell Nicholls, a curate who assisted her father for many long time and who had loved her for a very long time.She had rejected his affection in the past, but their marriage was successful and they developed a happy companionship so it was all the more tragic that she enjoyed it for only virtuoso year. She died in 1855 of complications arising from pregnancy. Her father, who had outlived all her children, had said that she was not strong enough/for marriage. Bronte engages sympathy towards Jane because of the utilization of the firstborn person by the narrator. I was glad of it I never liked long walks. By utilize I the writer ensures that we see things and looking things from Janes point of view.We have empathy for her. Jane is made to feel set-apart when the beating-reed instruments sit together and exclude her. The said Eliza, John, and Georgiana were now clustered round their mama in the drawing-room. Also, we feel compassion when Aunt Reed talks to her and tells her that she does not want her to be in with her own children since she was very rude when she was near her elders. Sympathy is engaged again when Jane goes to the breakfast-room alone because she was told to sit somewhere else and be mum until she could speak pleasantly. In the Breakfast room Jane finds a bookcase.Soon she was possessed by a batch which she made sure should be one stored with pictures. As she looked the book she describes the landscapes in the book are and the places where they may be found. The reader is completely on Janes side when John Reed verbally and physically abuses her. The volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell, striking my head against the door and cutting it I felt h im grind my hair and my shoulder. The reason for this is because of the brutality described. Jane tries to fight back but Miss Abbot and the nurse pull her away from John, and they hold her down.My impulse was to rise from it like a spring their two pairs of detention arrested me instantly. Although John is bigger physically she still wants to attack him, because he said, she was less than a servant to him. have the best How is he my master? Am I a servant? No you are less than a servant. Nobody is on Janes side, not even the servants. They all came to rescue John Reed from Jane. Again, our sympathy for Jane is reinforced. The sheer injustice of Janes circumstances gets our sympathy. Nobody accepts her version of events, even though Mrs. Reed is alive(predicate) that John has been bullying Jane.He bullied and punished me not two or three times in the week, nor once or twice in the day, but continually. Every nerve I had feared him, and every fleck of flesh in my body shrank when he came near. the servants did not like to offend their young master by taking my part against him and Mrs. Reed was blind and deaf in the subject she never saw him divulge or heard him abuse me.. . Again, the readers sympathy is engaged when we hear that Bessie will plug in Jane to a stool in the Red Room. If you dont sit still, you must be tied down, said Bessie. This is a complete over-reaction. Abbot and Bessie talked about their opinions of Jane in front of her which is very rude. And you ought not to appreciate yourself an equality with the Misses Reed and Master Reed, because Missis kindly allows you to be brought up with them. Jane describes the Red Room as being very grand but cold. She also states that it is not frequented by people much because Mr. Reed had died there nine years ago.Only the housemaid went there by herself on Saturdays, to wipe from the mirrors and piece of furniture a weeks quiet dust and Mrs.Reed herself, at far intervals, visited it to revi ew the contents of a certain secret drawer in the wardrobe, where were stored divers parchments, her jewel-casket, and a miniature of her diseased husband and in those last words lies the secret of the red-room the spell which kept it so lonely in spite of its grandeur. Janes childish imagination is engaged when she realises she has been locked into this forbidding room. She sees herself in the mirror ghostly as she remembered Bessies stories about phantoms. Superstition is with Jane.We now hear Janes opinion about her unfortunate situation. Our compassion is with her as we hear her side of the story. John Reeds violent tyrannies, all his sisters proud indifference, all his mothers aversion, all the servants partiality, turned up in my disturbed mind like a dark force in a turbid well. She talks about Johns behaviour and tells us that he has mentally affected her and this indicates that she would be more that happy to run away just for his sake. Georgiana, who had a spoilt tem per, a very acrid spite, a captious and insolent carriage, was universally indulged.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Social Class Differences in Education EssayThe claim that hearty kinfolk differences in education through take aimhouse f serveors is back up by the interactionists such as George H. Mead. They believe that labelling theory encourages the educational achievement in variant social classes. The labelling theory is when the teacher identifies major characteristics of a schoolchild. Research shows that teachers ar more likely to label centerfield class children as bright and well behaved yet working class children as naughty and disruptive. chase the label being attached on the child is self fulfilling prophecy, this is when the child will respond and act according to the label being placed on them, so a middle class student will act well behaved and complete the work that is set whereas the working class student will disrupt and non complete the work set and therefore not do well in exams. This shows that labelling working and middle class students affects the educational achievements because of their social class. However George H.Mead can be criticised by corporal/cultural deprivation. Material deprivation is when the child doesnt have the right equipment for school e. g. books, and cultural deprivation is when the children havent been given over over the correct norms and values for attitudes to education. This shows that it is not just school factors that affect the differences in education achievement but it is also home factors. Marxists such as Willis would argue that counter school subcultures are the reason wherefore different social class are achieving and underachieving.He claims that working class boys reject the whole thinker of school and contain school as a place of laughs and a matter of amusement because they do not have the correct norms and values, the suck schools as boring so the disrupt lessons and breaking school rules. This behaviour will lead to low grades and therefore low pay jobs in the future. This shows that dif ference in social class results to different educational achievement.It can be argued that the working class children do not think about the uture also known as cultural capital, working class children only see how they should enjoy themselves in the present time and not what the rewards of education will be later on in life, this could be due to the rise in lone parent mothers and boys do not see a role model father and therefore do not value education, this shows that it is not only school factors that affect the educational achievement but it is home factors as well.Gillborn and Youdell argued that examination sets are divorce into two tiers, foundation and higher. Pupils that are entered for the foundation paper can not achieve higher than a C, pupils who are entered in for the higher paper are able to achieve A*. middle class students are more likely to be entered in the higher paper and working class are placed in the foundation. This shows that educational achievement is bec ause of school factors and that working class pupils are not given a fair opportunity to education.However Sugarman would argue that educational achievement is not only because of school factors it is also home factors this could be due to class subcultures. He describes working class pupils as fatalist and that they accept their position rather than exploiting to improve this. Pupils are not given the motivation for parents to try and improve. Evidence shows that there are may reasons why difference in social class leads to different educational achievements so therefore evidence remains inconclusive.
City of battle of Atlanta EssayAtlanta, the center of higher education in the South East United asseverates with more than 15 colleges and universities, has a student people of over 77,117. Major universities include Emory University, University of Georgia, Georgia Institute of applied science, Georgia State University, Kennesaw State University, and Oglethorpe University, which argon all situated strategically in and round Atlanta. With an adult population of some 4,536,323, Atlanta is a key location that CoViTek should target. The average household income is between $50,000 $74,999 which compromises 21.3% of the total population of the city. Students age 18-34 absorb an income that is between $30,000 $74,999 which compromises around 113,362 households. Atlantas congested areas include Clifton Rd. , College Park, UGA Campuses, and the Midt bear area. Market Data Credit identity card Usage Over 3 million people in Atlanta own and use creed cards. 84% of the populati on has a Bank Card, 29% subscribe gas/department store credit cards, and 18. 7% of the population has at least some sorting of travel/entertainment credit cards. altogether 200,255 of the population of the city do not carry credit cards. With 5. 8 million students enrolled in 4-year colleges around the United States, they shake an aggregate spending power of more than $90 billion. $30 billion of the spending is from personal earning and parents. Almost two thirds of college students in Boston carry a credit card part spending an average of $1,213 per month, with up to 10% of expenditures on some form of entertainment, including video rentals. CoViTek provide have to hire a market research firm to indicate (in each city)1. Average spending clam per household on video rentals a year 2. total number of students who rent videos (how many per year) 3. Total students with the relevant purchasing power 4. Entrepreneurial activity in and around the city 5. An overall profession cli mate, which includes consideration of transportation, banking, professional services, economic base, and growth trends Travel / Entertainment 425,723 13. 2% Bank Cards 1,912,341 59. 6% Gas / Department Stores 669,319 20. 8% No Credit Cards 200,255 6. 4% Credit card utilization/ year in the city of Atlanta.Areas of Volume We pull up stakes in any case need to negotiate with all kind of locations that drive a lot of traffic such as stores, buildings, and large apartment complexes. We are interest in any strategic location that is frequented by a high volume of pedestrians. We would also have to negotiate with them the same terms of revenue sharing agreements as with the universities. Nevertheless, we see a very evoke opportunity in negotiating alliances with retail chains that occupy strategic locations such as Starbucks.We would offer such companies with profit sharing plans in CoViTek, and in return, we would get the right to implement a tool away(p) their stores. This type of agreement would enable us to gain several key locations, saving us condemnation and money. Metro Stations The T in Boston is the most frequently use method of transportation, which accounts for more than 695,000 passengers a day. Other forms of transportation include buses and taxis. A large percentage of professionals use the T every(prenominal) day for commuting back and forth from work. trade CoViTeks publicize plan volition be base around the individual cities we choose to place machines in. Our first city, Atlanta, was selected because the CEO and COO live and work there. publicize on college campuses can be very inexpensive, and we exit focus our efforts there. At least one machine forget be on each of the following schools campuses Georgia State University, UGA, and Emory University. Our advertising methods for all of our campus locations will be similar.We will target hall halls and popular campus locations with posters and fliers posted on campus bulletin boards , distributed in residence halls, and advertisements in the schools newspaper. Campus advertising should not cost more than $1,000 per school, most likely less, depending on the schools population. We will also hire a full-service advertising agency, but not until we expand to other cities. We loss to see how untold awareness we can achieve in Atlanta without an agency campaign. Once we expand to other cities, we will need an agency to create a consistent and strategic brand image for CoViTek.All of our advertising will stress our convenience and value, to deliver a clear brand image in the consumers mind. In addition to our marketing efforts, CoViTek will employ a variety of other marketing strategies Viral Marketing CoViTek will aggressively target and distribute e-mails to potential consumers featuring promotional deals, newly released videos, as well as a direct link to CoViTeks web page. Public Relation CoViTek will use a slip by New Media public relations firms to promote t he company and secure write-ups in prominent Internet/Technology and business magazines.Online Advertising CoViTek will place online banner advertisements on popular B2C web sites that our profile user would frequent. Feedback We will encourage our customer to give us feedback on what they would like to see in our machines by dint of our and offer them incentives to do so such as free rental or coupons. While our infusion will be smaller than our brick and mortar competitor, our market will be more targeted. Rather than having everything, we are striving to provide our market with the exact products that meet their needs.Thus this narrower selection can be seen as an advantage for us as it demands that our company remains focused on our customers and our competitors, to ensure that we are providing our customers with what they motivation to see. We will also encourage our customers to give us feedback on what they would like to see in our machines. This will be done through our website by offering incentives and free rental coupons. Distribution Michel Khoury and Sina Mouloud will be in charge of the maintenance of up to ten machines at one point in time. We will hire students as our operation expands onto more universities across the US.SuppliersVideo Vending North American VVNA is the origin and market leader in the takings of video rental machines. Its system is exclusive in its conspiracy of both VHS and DVD formats. VVNA has been manufacturing video-dispensing machines since the early 90s. VVNA machines are the most innovative and modernized in the market. To maintain the maximal market value of their products, VVNA manufactures sturdy, reliable machines, made to last many years and capable of providing thousands of rentals without requiring machine alteration.VVNA machines have been designed using a unique, patented technology proven to provide the markets most reliable and honest equipment, while reducing the level of maintenance intervention to a minimum. A central computer is used to remotely manage all the dispensers via DSL networks. Personalization of the Video Dispensers VVNA, the manufacturer of the video vending machines is willing to tailor the design of the machine for us. Therefore we need to develop a design for our machine that will efficiently promote our company.The design and the logo must attract attention while being contemporary and functional. We want the machine to catch the attention of pedestrians who walk by the machine in order to drive more traffic to it. Production Companies Ninety percent of our videotapes will come from one of the six major production companies (Buena Vista, Warner Bros. , Universal, Fox, Paramount, or Columbia-Tri-Star). The power of these suppliers is very high, as they hold the rights of the movies they produce.We will be working with Video Bicicling. They will give us a competitive price on Videos and DVD. Our experience has shown us that it is better to own a rentable video in order to use it for resale after complete amortization. This system will allow us to sell the movies that are not in high demand after using their complete value in rental time. CoViTek may consider the selling of consumer information gathered from their database technology to research companies primarily dealing with entertainment studies.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Belonging Notes Essay Different environment atmosphere contributes to our intelligence of belong. Adapting after a while strengthens the genius of belonging, erudite the place a bit, whole toneing comfortable. Shifting stake to civilization, feels out of place, non belonging, shifting in with different surrounding. Upbringing places a part in our sense of belonging Technology-internet-find someone with the same interest and sense of belonging kicks in. E.g. Facebook, Twitter, Bebo, Myspace. Perspective of others shifts our sense of belonging Obstacles and picture creates a feel of not belonging and break apart a sense of security. Enjoyment and assortment of attitude (positive) helps build sense of belonging. After being placed in a different place, conditions, our get under ones skin alters our sense of belonging Example Going on holidays and returning home, takes a period of time to feel the feeling of belonging again. Preparation doesnt help with the sense of belon ging. Being familiar to the way and knowing the comfort zone (when you are at a place you go int know/never been to) supports sense of belonging. Stereotype media acceptance only finished appearance- determining whether you belong or not. Belonging is a choice. Knowledge and stereotype makes others feel like they dont belong. No desire to change belonging Belonging is a journey Individuals dont feel like they belong due to egotism and the desire to not change. Belonging is everywhere, what you wear makes you belong to a certain brand, it all comes d suffer to you whether you indispensableness to belong who wants you to belong. Remember along with belonging there is always isolation that follows. Responses Stronger receptions shows the relationship/ signifi flush toilett amid school texts. Why do people do the things? REPRESENATION e.g. why does the characters do those actions/ Why has the author/ artist/ manufacturer make or use certaintechniques instead of the others. * Choice of language, form, features and structure shape the meaning and bewitch responses. The choices are affluent by a composers sense of belonging. How is the concept of belonging conveyed through the text, people, relationships, ideas, places, events and ordering? Does it make a difference where the character belongs? Share some values of feelings -understanding a world in a different way shape in a peculiar way, different society- assumption to being Australian. Possibility present by a sense of belonging or not belongingpercept How an individual perception of belonging or not can vary, is shaped by his/her personal, cultural, historical and loving context.ASPECTS OF BELONGING Experiences Notion of identity Relationship Acceptance UnderstandingFORMULA TO ANSWER QUESTIONS Identify map Explain ExtrapolateSHORT STORY Do not abuse the concept of belonging withal strongly Dont use the word belonging Exclusion, acceptance, struggle Keep it simple, focus on the concept IMAGERY- BOLD, CREATIVE COMBINATIONS TO ACHIEVE ORIGINALITY Simile, metaphor or personification charge DONT TELL Short story-hook reader in the first two lines, straight into action Explode a moment, two characters, one setting READ SHORT STORIES Turning point-climax-should not be death-with too quick-carefully say the relationship. TWISTA TALE Dramatic beginning bar-irrelevant background info on your character Character should be revealed through dialogue and actors. Avoid lots of internal dialogue Use experience of own Close to own world-reflect truth (you can utilize jargon to add a little touch of truth.) Use paragraphs AVOID romance (genre) Fantasy YOU HAVE 40 minutes to WRITE A DECENT STORY stick out the audience to add to the story DO non CONCENTRATE ON THE PLOT YOU WANT TO SHOW BELONGING Recommended to be 4 PGS Note The creative writing section to Paper One does not have to be a narrative.EXAM Have at least two great storylines YOU fuck TWIST to suit any type of belonging principals. Remembering a story can be risky especially if you walk into the exam and through the reading time, you might have a apprehension attack.Dos DONTs Let the Q drive and shape your response Blend your understanding of belonging with the question DONT put the questions in your introduction Thesis or statement throughout response A MUST Use the text to support or challenge the thesis or concepts specialized TOPIC+ ATTITUDE/ANGLE/ARGUMENT= thesis What you plan to argue +how you plan to argue it=THESIS DO NOT RE-COUNT OR RE-TELL TEXT ANALYSISEVALUATE TEXT NO OPINION FOR READERSESSAY STUFF1. Thesis-map consort reader2. Connection between text, comparison or pattern3. Techniques and contrasts4. Use cohesive devices E.g. similarity, by contrast, jibe5. Use topic sentences6. Support all statement with references to text7. Vocab for belonging the better your vocab and structure contributes to an horrendous MARKS8. Quotes + short quotes support what you say, dont put any q uotes that does not support thesis. (Short quotes are best, try to integrate them in your sentence they are easier to remember itll provide the flow for the reader/ scratch when they are reading. Remember they are reading a trillion PAPERS with some usurious handwriting.)Related piecesFILM JUST FIND ONE PART OR SECTION TO ANALYSIS pluck TEXT THAT MAKES READER STAND UP-FIND OWN Integrate the HOW techniques+ make it personal Dont try to salve everything down capture key points 3-5 related pieces recommended BUT THREE SHOULD BE MORE THAN lavishThings to remember when choosing your related texts Try and get a variety of different types. E.g. If you are doing a novel, go searching for a visual piece such as a film or graphics or a picture book. E.g. Frida Kahlo, Kathe Kollwitz. QUALITY Do something that you know not many people ordain do YOU WANT TO STAND OUT OF THE CROWD and show the markers you know your stuff. Make sure you can connect your text to belonging REMEMBER it does n ot have to be similar to your prescribed text as long as it has some sort of representation of belonging. Does it play your strength? Try to do something you are passionate or interested in. You will do so much better. DO NOT FORGET YOUR THESISSHORT ANSWERS Be Specific Can capitalize on other resolving powers to answer another question. WRITE ACCORDING TO MARKS if it id worth two marks DONT write HALF A PAGE TIMING- BALANCE In this section LOOK for anything that symbolizes a connection, affiliation, relationship AND OF bank line BELONGING Main questions are HOW? WHAT?11 points concerning belonging1. Family2. Friends3. Belonging to place/national identity4. ply5. Religion6. Political7. Profession8. Lifestyle9. Learn spirit shared identityWhen studying for English. muckle WRITE TIME yourself Find a quiet environment where you will not be disquieted for a certain time. PRACTICE Break down the news report if you want Get any questions on Belonging pick up your pen and WRITEWR ITE The teachers are there for a REASON SO role THEM- this goes for all subjects If you dont understand something shovel your hand up in the air, it is likely that others dont understand it too OR chase after them at recess/lunch. Place quotes just about the house like a crazy person on colorful cardboard and stick them slightly the house WHERE YOU KNOW you will always see them. When you have time do not come forth it to the last minute. Grab your notes out and start cutting it down. It is a killer when you have to do it A WEEK before the actual HSC exams. If you know your stuff, you should be confident in crashing and burning the HSC AOS English paper
Friday, April 12, 2019
How Do Economic Incentives Affect Social Preferences and Behavior EssayFor decades stintingal theories start relied heavily on the potentness of material hotfootments (Fehr Gachter, 2001). According to the traditional exchange theory each(a) flock ar exclusively motivated by their own material self-interest. It predicts that the groundwork of a penalty allow for reduce the occurrence of the mien that is subject to the fine. On the other hand it states that introducing a material inducement will take to the woods to an increase of the appearance related to the bonus.Based on scotch theory, fillips urinate stupefy increasingly popular and argon utilize to increase certain behaviors in various fields including environmental insurance policy (Andersen Sprenger, 2000 Barde Smith, 1997 Baumol Oates, 1988 Kahn, 1995 all cited in ThOgersen, 2003), ho drug abusehold surveys (Singer, 2002) and education policy (Fryer, 2011). On the other side, penalties return been used to reduce free-riding (Feldman, Papadimitriou, Chuang, Stoica, 2006), and crimes (Akerlof Dickens, 1982).There is much evidence that supports the basic premise of economics that incentives are effective (Gibbons, 1997 Prendergast, 1999 Lazear, 2000 all cited in Benabou Tirole, 2004). However, a large body of literature in psychology has shown that uttered incentives lead to accrue motivation and reduced mental process in the long run (Deci Ryan, 1985 as cited in Benabou Tirole, 2004). Titmuss (1970, as cited in Benabou Tirole, 2004) was the first off who claimed that people might adopt a market mentality when they are exposed to explicit economic incentives.He found that paying blood donors for donating blood could actually reduce supply. In the radical there was little hard evidence that societal preferences strikeed individual behavior, provided experiential and hypothetical advances over the past decades provide the basis for to a greater extent support . For example, Gneezy and Rustichini (2000a) found that introducing a m angiotensin-converting enzymetary fine for late-coming parents in day-care centers led to a significant increase in late-coming.There was no reduction in late-coming afterwards the fine was removed. Also Fryer (2011) didnt find evidence that providing financial incentives to teachers to increase student performance had any effect. Partly because of these findings, terms as trust, reciprocity, gift exchange and fairness support appeared in the empirical study and modeling of headspring sum- constituent relationships (Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012). This highlights the importance of the influence that sociable preferences have on incentives.Based on the contradictions mentioned to a high place I conclude that a more thorough analysis is needed in order to check the influence of incentives on behavior. Ill focus on the interplay between incentives and social preferences and how this affects behavior. In this newspaper publisher I will review several mechanisms that can explain how incentives can be slight effective than economic theories predict and how they can even have counterproductive effects. Furthermore I will signal the implications of the (non-) effectualness of incentives for economic policy.Overview of past research According to the definition of Bowles and Polania-Reyes (2012), social preferences refer to precedents such as altruism, reciprocity, intrinsic entertainment in doing others, inequity aversion, ethical commitments and other motives that induce people to help others more than would an own-material-payoff maximising individual (p. 4). Fehr and Fischbacher (2002) have indicated the most important fictional characters of preferences that have been uncovered by the literature. I will short review them below.The first important type of social preference is the preference for reciprocal fairness or reciprocity. An individual is reciprocal when he responds kindly to actions that are perceived as kind, and when he responds hostile to actions that are perceived as hostile. Whether some action is perceived as hostile of kind depends on the grievance or fairness of the intention and on the consequences that are associated with the action. A molybdenum social preference type is inequity aversion.According to Fehr and Schmidt (1999 as cited in Fehr Fischbacher, 2002) inequity indisposed souls want to achieve an impartial dispersal of material resources (p. C3). Inequity averse somebodys show unselfish behavior if the other persons payoffs are below an equitable level. However, if the other persons payoffs are exceeding the equitable level an inequity averse person want to decrease the other persons payoffs. There are a push-down storage of similarities in the behavior of reciprocal and inequity averse individuals, since both concepts depend in some way on the perception of fairness.Pure altruism is the third gear base type of social pr eference, which is very different from the former two. Altruism can be seen as an monotonous form of kindness (Fehr Fischbacher, 2002), as an altruistic person would never take an action that decreases other persons payoff. The problem with pure altruism is that it cannot explain conditional cooperation, that is, people want to increase their unpaid worker cooperation in repartee to cooperation of others. The last social preference type that Fehr and Fischbacher (2002) mentioned is green-eyed or spiteful preferences.An envious or spiteful person al ways values the payoff of other divisors negatively. Therefore the envious person is willing to decrease the other agents payoff even if it brings along a face-to-face cost to himself. This happens irrespective of fair or unfair behavior of the other agent and irrespective of the pay-off statistical distri moreoverion (Fehr Fischbacher, 2002). However, spitefulness cant explain why it is that the same individuals sometimes are wil ling to help others at a personal cost, while sometimes they harm other people.Over the past decades, umteen studies have confirmed that a significant fraction of individuals engage in reciprocal or altruistic behaviors (Buraschi Cornelli, 2002 as cited in Benabou Tirole, 2004 Fehr Gachter, 2000). Thus, many a(prenominal) individuals do not only(prenominal) care some the material resources allocated to them, but also care ab egress material resources allocated to other relevant agents. To give an overview of the incentive effects on preferences, two distinctions are made the nature and the causes of incentives (Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012).Concerning the nature of incentives, people often respond to the mere aim of incentives, rather than to their extent (Gneezy, 2003 as cited in Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012). However, the extent of an incentive may also play a role. Therefore the effects of incentives on social preferences can be either savorless or fringy or a crew of th e two. Bowles and Polania-Reyes (2012) also make a distinction between 2 causes of incentive effects on preferences. First, incentives can affect the environment in which preferences are learned. When this happens, the preferences are referred to as endogenic preferences.Second, the extent or presence of incentives affect the behavioral salience of an individuals social preferences. When incentives symbolize different states, we refer to social preferences as state-dependent preferences. There are three mechanisms that make social preferences state-dependent. First, by enforceing an incentive, the mind discloses information about his intentions, about his beliefs about the target of the incentives and about the targeted behavior. This information might affect the agents social preferences which in turn affect the agents behavior.Second, incentives provide situational cues for set aside behavior. Finally, incentives may lead to a displace out of intrinsic motivations. The crowdi ng-out effect is based on the wisdom that the presence of revengements or rewards spoils the reputational value of good deeds. This creates doubt within the individual about the extent to which he performed because of the incentives rather than for himself. This phenomenon is also referred to as the overjustification effect (Lepper, Greene, Nisbett, 1973 as cited in Benabou Tirole, 2004).In the next part of this paper Ill give tryal evidence for both endogenous preferences and for all 3 mechanisms that make preferences incentive-state-dependent. Furthermore, Ill give examples of proves where crowding in has been found and explain the cardinal mechanisms. 1. Endogenous preferences incentives alter how new preferences are learned Preferences are endogenous if someones experiences lead to durable changes in motivations and eventually declaration in a change in behavior in certain situations (Bowles, 2008).In most cases, experiments have a few hours duration and therefore its un seeming to uncover the mechanisms that are involved in the process of durable change of preferences. Although its hard to explore the causal mechanisms at work, there comprise some experiments that do show a durable learning effect (Irlenbausch Sliwka, 2005 Falkinger, Fehr, Gachter, Winter-Ebmer, 2000 all cited in Bowles, 2008). Gneezy and Rustichini (2000a), for example, examined if the macrocosm of a monetary fine for late-coming parents in day-care centers would lead to reduction of late-coming.However, the amount of late-coming parents didnt decrease, but increase significantly. Thus incentives led to more self-interested behavior. More importantly, after the fine was removed no reduction in late-coming parents was shown, meaning that there was some durable learning effect going on. 2. State-dependent preferences incentives provide information about the principal When an incentive is confabulate on an agent, he may infer information about the principal who radiation patt erned the incentive.He may, for example, infer information about the principals beliefs regarding the agent, and about the nature of the assign that has to be done (Fehr Rockenbach, 2003). This information can lead to a negative response to fines that are imposed by principals. Fehr and Rockenbach (2003) designed a sequentially compete social dilemma experiment and examined how sanctions intended to go on cheating affect human altruism. Participants in the role of investor could transfer a certain amount of bills to another player, the trustee.The experimenter tripled this amount. After tripling the money, the trustee was given the opportunity to back-transfer some of this money to the investor. The investor could indicate a desired level of the back-transfer before he transferred the money to the trustee. In the incentive-condition the investor even had the option to impose a fine if the trustee would send a back-transfer that was little than the desired amount. Instead of w ondrous a fine the investor could also choose to decline the use of the fine.The decision of imposing or declining the fine was know to the trustee. In the trust-condition the investor could not make use of incentives. Fehr and Rockenbach (2003) found that generous initial transfers by investors were reciprocated with greater back-transfers by trustees. However, the use of the fine reduced the return transfers, while renouncing the fine in the incentive-condition increased back-transfers. This nub that sanctions revealing selfish or greedy intentions destroy altruistic cooperation almost exclusively (Fehr Rockenbach, 2003).In another experiment by Fehr and Schmidt (2007), principals could choose between offering a bonus contract or a combination contract (which was a combination of the bonus contract with a fine) to the employee. What they found was that agents perceive that principals who are less fair are more likely to choose a combined contract and are less likely to pay the announced bonus. Furthermore the effect of effort on the bonus paid is in two ways as large in the pure bonus condition compared to the combined contract condition. The positive response to the principals renunciation of the fine option can be seen as a categorical effect.The threat of a fine led to diminishment of the trustees reciprocity. 3. State-dependent preferences incentives may suggest permissible behavior The experiments that will be described here, differ from the experiments mentioned above in the way that here incentives are apply exogenously by the experimenter. This means that incentives do not provide any information about the beliefs or intentions of other experimental subjects. In a lot of situations people look for clues of appropriate behavior. These are often provided by incentives. These framing effects have been investigated in many studies.Hoffman, McCabe, Shachat and Smith (1994 as cited in Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012) found that by making a game sound mor e competitive after relabeling it, generosity and fair-minded behavior in the participants were diminished. In some other studies (Ellingsen, Johannesson, Munkhammar, Mollerstrom, 2008 as cited in Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012) the framing effect even appeared to have changed subjects beliefs about the actions of others. Framing effects can also be induced in other ways than simply renaming the experiment. Providing an incentive may already provide a powerful frame for the decision maker.In an experiment of Schotter, Weiss and Zapater (1996) subjects played an Ultimatum Game experiment in which player 1 is given an endowment and asked to train a part of this endowment to player 2. Player 2 can either accept or reject this division. If he accepts, the proposed division is implemented. However, if he rejects both players receive nothing. Schotter et al (1996) found that if a market-like disputation was included in the game, that is, subjects with lower earnings would be excluded fro m the second round in the game, player 1 proposed less generous divisions to player 2.Furthermore, lower offers were accepted by player 2. The authors interpreted these results as that implementing market-like competition offers justifications for actions that in isolation would be unjustifiable (p. 38). Thus, providing incentives in the form of a competition can lead to moral disengagement. The framing effects of incentives can occur in cases of government-imposed incentives as well. An example comes from an experiment from Cardenas, Stranlund and Willis (2000) where they canvas the effects of external regulatory control of environmental quality.Participants were asked to choose how much time they would spend assembling firewood from a forest, while being aware that this activity has a negative effect on local anaesthetic water quality. Two interferences were considered to examine whether external control may crowd out assort- point behavior. All subjects played eight initial rounds of the game without any treatment, that is, without being able to communicate with each other and without external order. After the initial rounds, one subset of groups played additional rounds in which they were able to communicate.The other subset of groups was confronted with a government-imposed regulation. The regulation also involved the possibility of imposing a fine to subjects that would withdraw too much of the firewood. Although specimen economic theory predicted that the regulation would increase group-oriented behavior, this wasnt the case. When subjects were able to communicate they made way more efficient decisions. However, regulatory external control caused subjects to make decisions that were closer to their self-interest.This means that the fine, although it was insufficient to enforce the social optimum, extinguished the subjects ethical aptitudes. 4. State-dependent preferences incentives may compromise intrinsic motives and self-determination A third reason why social preferences may be state dependent is because providing incentives may lead to motivational crowding out. As Bowles (2008) put it where people derive pleasure from an action per se in the absence of other rewards, the ledger entry of explicit incentives may overjustify the activity and reduce the individuals sense of autonomy (p. 607).According to Deci (1975 as cited in Bowles, 2008) the underlying psychological mechanism appears to be a desire for feelings of competence and self-determination that are associated with intrinsically motivated behavior (p. 1607). There is a large body of literature on the psychology of intrinsic motivations going back to the early work of Festinger (1957 as cited in ThOgersen, 2003) and his cognitive dissonance theory. In the past decades a lot of experiments have been done to test the crowding out of intrinsic motivation. star of these studies comes from Gneezy Rustichini (2000b) who tested the effects of monetary incentives on s tudent performance. 180 students were asked to answer 50 questions of an IQ test. They were all paid 60 NIS (New Israeli Shekel) for their participation in the experiment. The students were divided into 4 different groups, which were all agree to 4 different treatments. The students in the first treatment group were only asked to answer as many questions as possible. The students in the second group got an extra payment of 10 cents of a NIS per question that they answered correctly.Subjects in the third group were promised 1 NIS, and subjects in the fourth group 3 NIS per question that they answered correctly. The average cast of questions correctly was approximately 28 in the first group and declined to 23 in the second group. Furthermore, the numeral increased to 34 in both the third and the fourth group. The differences in performance were significant. In a second experiment Gneezy Rustichini (2000b) tested the effect of incentives on volunteer work performed by high rail ch ildren. 180 children were divided into three groups.The subjects in the first group constituted the control group and they were only given a speech about the importance of volunteer work. The second group was given a speech as well, but was also promised to receive 1 per cent of the total amount of donations collected. The third group was promised 10 per cent of the amount collected. The average amount collected was highest in the first group and lowest in the second group. The average amount that was collected by the third group was higher than that of the second group but not as high of the amount that was collected in the first group.Also these results were significant. It appears to indicate that the effect of incentives can be detrimental, at least for piffling amounts. In another experiment, Falk and Kosfeld (2006 as cited in Bowles 2008) tested the idea that control aversion based on the self-determination motive is the reason that incentives reduce performance. They used a principal-agent game where agents could choose a level of production that was right for the principal, but costly for themselves. If the agent chose to produce nothing, he would get a maximal pay-off. Before the agents decision the principal could decide to leave the choice f production level completely to the agent or to impose a certain lower bound on the agents production level.The experimenter varied the bounds across the treatments and the principal could only choose to impose it or not. Results showed that when the principal imposed the bound, the agents chose a lower production level than when the principal didnt impose a bound. The leery principals earned half of the profits of those who did trust the agents and thus didnt impose a bound. In post-surveys, the agents indicated that imposing the lower bound was perceived as a signal of distrust.The results of this experiment suggest that the desire for self-determination and control aversion are not the only effects of impos ing the bound. Imposing this minimum was informative for the agents about what the principals beliefs were regarding the agents the principals who imposed the bounds had lower expectations of the agents. Thus, the results in the experiment of Falk and Kosfeld (2006 as cited in Bowles 2008) seem to be the result of both negative information about the principal (or incentive designer) as well as the result of self-determination. 5. Crowding inAlthough a lot of experiments show that providing incentives has a negative effect on social preferences, there is also some evidence that crowding in can occur, that is, social preferences and incentives enhance the effect on each other. This might happen when an incentive provides good news about the principals type or intentions, for example when he offers the agent a reward rather than a fine. It is also seen in experiments where the incentive designers are peers in a public goods game who pay to punish free riders in order to sustain cooper ative behavior (Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012).The phenomenon of crowding in is interesting since it indicates how policies could be implemented optimally and how incentives and social preferences could become complements rather than substitutes (Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012). Besides that, it appears that crowding in happens often in Public Goods games and Common Pool Resources games, which display the same characteristics as public policy settings. Below Ill give an example of an experiment in which crowding in was found.Fehr and Gachter (2000) conducted a public good experiment with and without the opportunity to punish. In the no-punishment treatment the dominant strategy is complete free-riding. In the punishment treatment free-riders could be punished by their altruistic peers, since it was costly for them to punish. Therefore, if there were only selfish individuals, as assumed in economic theory, there wouldnt be a difference between the two treatments. However, in the no-punish ment treatment the contributions of the players were substantially lower than in the punishment treatment.This suggests that powerful motives drive the punishments of free-riders. Furthermore there was evidence that the more free-riders deviated from cooperation, the more they were being punished. There are several mechanisms that can explain the effect of crowding in. In the first place when a peer imposes a fine on a free-rider, this may travel a feeling of shame. Barr (2001 as cited in Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012) found that just a verbal mental object of disfavour already can have a positive effect on the free riders contributions.A second mechanism that appears to be at work it that nobody wants to be the cooperator while all others are defecting. Shinada and Yamagishi (2007, as cited in Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012) found that students cooperated more in a public goods experiment when they were assured that defecting free-riders would be punished. They just didnt want to be e xploited by defectors. A third mechanism underlying crowding in was consistent with the findings of an experiment by Vertova and Galbiati (2010, as cited in Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012).They found that when a express obligation was introduced, this produced a larger effect when it was accompanied with a small monetary incentive, rather than with a big incentive or than when no incentives were offered. The authors interpreted this phenomenon as that the salience of the stated obligation is heighten by large explicit incentives. The latter phenomenon was also found in Ireland, where a small taxation was imposed on plastic grocery bags (Rosenthal, 2008 as cited in Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012). After two weeks there was a 94% decline in the use of these bags.This result can be explained by the fact that the introduction of the tax was preceded by a large publicity campaign. Thus, the incentive was implemented jointly with a message of social obligation and it seems that it served as a reminder of the importance of ones civic duty. Implications for policy Many policies are based on the self-interest hypothesis that predicts that all individuals are self-regarding. However, as we have seen social preferences play an important role as well when it comes down to behavior. This would mean that a lot of current policies are non-optimal.Therefore a big argufy is facing the mechanism designer how to design optimal fines, taxes or subsidies when the individuals responses depend on his preferences which in turn are fit(p) by the incentive imposed? In most experiments the effects of incentives were studies and afterwards the mechanisms were identified that could explain the results. However, one of the problems that the designer is facing is that he must determine beforehand how incentives will affect behavior. Based on the experiments that have been done, several guidelines can be drawn.The first is that when crowding out is found, social preferences and incentives are substitutes. This means that a negative effect of incentives is less likely to be found when the social preferences are minimal. In contrast, when social preferences are prevalent among a society, it may be more convenient to reduce the use of incentives. Also, policies that are implemented in order to enhance social preferences will be more effective when incentives are little used. The second stems from Titmusss claim that if the crowding out effect is so squiffy that the incentive has an opposite effect than intended, incentives should be used less.However, in many cases the effectiveness of incentives is not reversed, but blunted and then the implications for the optimal use of incentive isnt that obvious (Bowles Hwang, 2008). How Bowles Hwang (2008) state it the reduced effectiveness of the incentive associated with crowding out would entail a larger incentive for a planner designing a subsidy to ensure compliance with a quantitative target (p. 4). Present evidence is insu fficient in providing enough guidelines to the policy maker who wants to know ex ante what the effects are of the incentives that he considers to implement (Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012).What we do know is that the same incentives imposed by individuals who have no personal well-being but only want to promote pro-social behavior (as in the experiment of Fehr Gachter, 2000) are more likely to increase contributions than when imposed by an untrusting principal (Fehr Rockenbach, 2003). Furthermore it seems to be important to let the agent understand that the desired change in behavior would be socially beneficial rather than that the incentive is perceived as a threat to her autonomy or reflecting badly on the designers intentions (Bowles Polania-Reyes, 2012). ConclusionThe self-interest hypothesis assumes that individuals are only motivated by their own material self-interest. This surmise is used in the design of many policies. However, in the past decades a lot of experiments ha ve shown that other-regarding social preferences rather than self-regarding preferences play a role in behavior. We have seen that some mechanisms can induce pro-socially oriented individuals to behave as they are selfish. On the other hand, there are also examples of experiments in which mechanisms induce self-interested individuals to behave at a more pro-social level.Thus, incentives can lead to both crowding out and crowding in phenomena. Whereas negative information about the principal and the over-justification effect may lead to crowding out of intrinsic motivation to contribute to a good, altruistic punishment by peers who do not returns personally is more likely to increase contributions. Furthermore it seems important to make individuals aware of their civic duty, as was shown in Ireland where a small tax was imposed on plastic bags.Regarding to public policy, we have seen that small differences in institutional design can lead to many different outcomes. This imposes a b ig challenge on the policy designer who has to know ex ante what the effects of the incentive that he is considering to implement will be. When social preferences are not present, incentives may have a positive effect, predicted by economic theory. However, in areas where social preferences do play a role, the use of monetary incentives needs to be reconsidered.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Silence, Feminism Racism EssayThe essays make by Hooks simply described the voice as an relevant tool in achieving immunity from oppression, not only for the perspective of one woman, but using the voice in order to relieve other women experiencing cruelty. This is an example of one important role of women in the society. Silence on the contrary keeps women from creation in the state of oppression, beca physical exercise they are hindered from using their voice to speak of their situation. Women in silence never learn how to speak for themselves, and the only solution is to free them from silence. For other women, even though they are subjected to domination, they still use their voice to resist the impact of those who oppress them. Hooks mentioned that feminism is transformative. The writings of today are racist and at the same time sexist as dictated by the culture. But then the expressive style a student reads a composition, for example a novel, the style of literary c riticism may be varied from the usual cultural dictatorship that makes the women oppressed in those readings.I agree, feminism is a thinkable tool for critical and analytical examination of writings, and when the feministic view is inserted in the classrooms, this may transform the customary panorama of women. But as for me, the feministic view cannot be totally pushed into the minds of people but could be just employ as a guide in making literary criticisms, but not an overall point principle in much or almost all of the things. Some of the women chose not to be determine in the feminist movement because of the fear or responsibility.Attached to being a feminist is the resistance and many critical encounters from the opposition that would punish the ego and esteem of women. Of course, much of the views of a feminist entrust be opposed by the status quo of men stronger than women, which entails public critique to their feministic ideals. Hooks was happy schooling many things from her teachers who happened to be black also in her younger days, until she transferred to another institution of all-white teachers in the mid-sixties because of school integration.Here she was always confronted because of her color. It made her think that the teachers are not willing to enrich their apprehension but to make them consider education as just a form of obedience to them. Also, at that place was not even any subject or discussion incorporating the life of the blacks. This is one of the factors that made her descend to continue writing for their culture and for womanhood. She had made it a channel for arousing her imagination of conceptualizing teaching as a way to free people from captivity of the mind, especially the women at that time.