Saturday, August 31, 2019

Fate in Oedipus the King Essay

Tragedy of Oedipus is about pre-destination vs free-will. Fate does play a part in the tragic down fall of Oedipus but it does not mean that his character and disposition has no liability for that. Excessive arrogance and self-confidence of Oedipus is the main cause of his tragedy. He harbors unjustified suspicions against Tiresias and Creon; in one place he goes so far as to express some uncertainty about the prophetic natures of oracles and truth of their prophecies. It is hardly likely that even a combination of all these would be equal to what Aristotle considered to be a serious hamartia, and it would not be very relevant to the point at issue even if he did, for Oedipus has committed incest and parricide years before the action of the play began, and before he exhibited any of the failing mentioned above. It would hardly be logical to say that the gods punished Oedipus for a crime which he was to commit many days later. Another view is that the present failings of Oedipus may be taken to means that he was he was always like that, and his tragedy comes due some inherent or innate unsoundness in his character. So he is not a puppet in the hands of fate. But Sophocles also illustrates that it was fate that brought him to Thebes and it was gain fate that he came across someone at where three highways came together. It was his fate that he married his mother. Above all, fate has played a pivotal role in his life from the very start and has not dealt with him even-handedly. The divine will as predicted and proclaimed by the oracle was absolute and it has nothing good about Oedipus. Although certain measures were taken by the King and Queen) to escape from that proclaimed destiny but it became the cause for the tragic downfall of Oedipus. That is the reason that Oedipus says after blinding himself. God. God. / Is there a sorrow greater? /Where shall I find harbor in this world? / My voice is hurled far on a dark wind. / What has God done to me? (Sophocles 831) Dodds writes about the nature of fate as demonstrated by Oedipus that fate is â€Å"inevitably and inexorably bound to happen no matter what Oedipus may have done to avoid it (Dodds 21).

Friday, August 30, 2019

Demise of the Weimar Republic

The demise of the Weimar Republic did not occur due to one sole reason, but because of a number of short and long term factors. The economic, political and international pressure placed on the people of Germany ensured the loathing of the forced governmental rule. The immediate impact of the Great Depression of 1929, which has been debated and considered by most historians to be the dominant factor in the downfall of the ‘democratic experiment’ which subsequently led to continuous political instability ultimately saw the collapse of the first democratic government of Germany.Some historians generally blame the fall of the Republic on president von Hindenburg’s abuse of constitutional powers. Historian David Martin states that the â€Å"survival of democracy depended on his (Hindenburg’s) integrity and decisions. Unfortunately, his actions made a major contribution to its destruction†. More deadlocks within the Reichstag and civil unrest gave Hindenbu rg no choice but to give the people what they wanted, which was a strong leader in Adolf Hitler. The Weimar republic was not welcomed by Germany after her defeat in world war one in 1919.Germany had never had a democracy before and felt that the Allies had forced this treaty upon them. Even Prince Max of Beden did not want a democracy for Germany. Because this new government had signed the treaty they were now known as the ‘November Criminals’ and were loathed by everyone. According to Henig, ‘It was the acknowledgement of defeat.. which they found so hard to accept. ’ The historian Friedrich Meinecke observed that, for true Germans, loyalty to the ‘Fatherland required disloyalty to the republic’.In a sense the Weimar Republic was a â€Å"democracy without democrats† Treaty of Versailles The military defeat of Germany in November 1918 came as a genuine shock to most Germans, who had believed that Germany would be victorious in the war. W hen seeking armistice in the same month, Germans expected the peace settlement to be based on President Wilson’s 14 points and although they also did not expect a soft treaty, it was greater then imagined. The Treaty was a complete humiliation for Germany and was a dent to national pride.It had to be accepted however as the allies threatened To resume war again and still maintained a naval blockade so consequently on the 28th of June, 1919, the Treaty was signed. As a result of the Treaty, Germany lost all of its colonies including Alsace and Lorraine. The army was reduced to 100,000 men, with further restrictions placed on naval and air force. 33 million dollars of reparations had to be paid and these economic provisions of the treaty effectively weakened Germany’s capacity to pay by 1924.The Weimar Republic and the democracy were weakened because both were always associated with the Treaty of Versailles. This was a constant theme used by those who opposed the republi c and the democratic system. Because this new government had signed the treaty they were now known as the ‘November Criminals’ and were loathed by everyone. According to Henig, ‘It was the acknowledgement of defeat.. which they found so hard to accept. ’ Period of Hyperinflation Hyperinflation gave the people of Germany another reason to find fault in the democratic Weimar Government.Louis Snyder wrote that it was â€Å"these people who later turned to Adolf Hitler as the messiah to lead them out of financial chaos†. Immediately after the war, Germany had little capacity for economic recovery as key industrial resources had been lost in the Treaty and had little export trade and consequently unable to attract any major foreign investment loans. To get more finance, the German government’s response was to print more money so the value of German currency continued to fall. Before the US dollar has been 4. 2 marks, by 1920 it was worth 64. marks thus German taxation increased. Anyone with access to even a few pounds became a trillionaires over night. The losers of the hyperinflation were those with a fixed income, the working class, people living off their savings and wage earners. By June 1923, the government had lost control of the economy, as strikes swepped the country as workers protested about the rising unemployment and the failure of their wages to keep up with the cost of living. In August, the govenment finally fell, with President Ebert called or the leader of the German people party, Streseman, to form a new party. He formed the ‘great coalition’ which brought together left and right wing. In the next six years, German society picked up with the induction into the League of Nations, the Dawes plan of 1924 which provided foreign loans to Germany and the Young Plan which saw the reduction in Germany’s reparation figure by 95 million. The downside of Germany’s new economic prosperity mean t that society was living off borrowed money and was over-dependant on foreign loans and investment.The economic power was concentrated in the hands of influential industrialists and bankers and employment was still on the rise. Within these six years, the Weimar republic surprisingly enjoyed a period of relative political stability. President Ebert’s sudden death in 1925 followed President Hindenburg into the role. He’s election reconciled many in the army to support the republic goldern years– that â€Å"this was merely nothing more than depictive stability† d. packart. The Depression Historian W.M Simon wrote, â€Å"The depression had created a situation in which parliamentary government broke down, opening the way to presidential government by decree†¦The more openly the political parties became parliamentary pressure groups, the more the parliamentary process (and the democratic process) as a whole fell into discredit†. The great depressi on of 1929 occurred very suddenly and ended the period of relative affluence for Germany. The depression was the result of substantial amounts of investment from overseas and the high interest rates of 1928 which consequently left the economy with a reduction in economic activity and employment.Consequently social spending reduced and people were left without food and shelter which created overall bitterness. In response the government chose to follow a policy of deflation in which they cut expenditure and attempted to balance the budget. Throughout this extremely stressful time, the fear of communism had increased enormously. Membership of the Communist Party grew enormously and most feared that if a revolution occurred, German people would have their private property confiscated.Therefore, most were heartened by the strongly anti communist position taken by Hitler and his Nazi Party. â€Å"dependent on the American economy, made Germany vulnerable to the instabilities of the worl d markets† W. link 1970. Rise of the Extremists and Hitler/National Socialists – Failure of the German Democracy 1930-33 By 1930 Mullers government had failed to deal with the Depression. Bruning was appointed chancellor and in July his budget passed the Reichstag using article 48. At the same time the Nazi’s attacked the republic, critizing its weak parliamentary system.They promised to revitalize Germany with determination and conviction, offering hope to the middle class, small business operators and rural/farming population â€Å"The Depression put the wind into Hitler’s sails† (Taylor). In September 1930, the Reichstag Elections saw the Nazi’s win 107 seats in the Reichstag in which they previously held 12. the Reichstag became virtually unworkable as the Nazi’s, communists and Nationalist all opposed Bruning. Another critiscm of the Weimar constitution was Article 48 where in an emergency the president could override any laws, th e opinions of the Reichstag and the people.He could also have total control of the army to ‘restore order’. With the army on his side and the republic disregarded, the President would have total control. Evidently from the above paragraphs one can conclude that the Weimar Republic did not collapse due to one reason but was a process consisting of a number of long and short term events. The Republic was flawed and weak from its beginning in 1919 and it was a miracle that it survived until 1933 in a country that opposed the Republic as a whole.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Faith in ourselves Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Faith in ourselves - Essay Example To be able to get enlightened, disciplined pursuit of truth is necessary. Salzberg talks about how her own spiritual journey was marked by phases of doubt and confusion. Indeed, it is these challenges which make knowledge concrete, pulling away from its conceptual abstractions. In her own case, she encountered confusion whether to follow the Burmese or the Tibetan tradition of spiritual contemplation. She states that such challenges are a rite of passage for entering a higher realm of consciousness. Even when it comes to techniques of meditation there are numerous methods. As far as spiritual awakening is concerned there is no one text-book method to follow. Spiritual progress is a personal journey and it is achieved through the individual’s own striving. Salzberg contends that although Buddhist teachers can offer guidance, the ‘truth’ cannot be revealed through instruction. Salzberg cites her own experiences as an abused child to explain how Buddhist philosophy c an come to aid. Having been abandoned and abused by her parents at a very young age, Salzberg was yet able to overcome such trauma. It was purely as a result of Vipassana meditation, that she successfully conquered her past. What more, the example of her life is in itself an inspiration for many of us with similar childhoods. Salzberg forewarns that though the fruits of meditation are undeniable, attaining them requires lots of patience and persistence. Buddhism does not offer any quick-fix solutions but instead takes the seeker through trials and tribulations. It is only those with conviction and faith that come through this arduous journey. Salzberg implores us to take up this challenge, for the fruits it bears are invaluable. I personally subscribe to what Salzberg has said in her book. Although I am not a Buddhist, I am able to see the value of Buddhist contemplative practices, especially meditation, for healthy living. It should be remembered that most modern illnesses are stress related.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Service Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Service Management - Essay Example Queues that have the highest number of customers deal with depositing, withdrawing, or payment of bills. The customers on any given queue wait for the same service or differ slightly (Vohra 2006). Service primarily refers to the activity the customers’ line for. Service delivery from the tellers differs as some of them specialize on one task while others multitask. The service feature is, therefore, determined by the design of the servicing system and service distribution. Service distribution defines the number of customers that the teller serves in a given period. The number of tellers/servers refers to the staff that is employed to respond to the queue. The size of the queue is by large determined by the number of tellers that are on duty (Vohra 2006). The most important level for measurement in service management in the bank queues is the mean time that any customer waits before being served. The measurement will help determine if the customers are satisfied with the service. The measurement will also help the bank to determine if it needs to hire additional

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Employee Engagement (MA Human Resource Management) Coursework

Employee Engagement (MA Human Resource Management) - Coursework Example 10 6. Conclusion 12 References 1. Introduction The involvement of the specific organization in a New Global HR programme should be checked by referring primarily to the relevant evidence, meaning the literature related to this issue but also the findings of the empirical research. At the next level, the potentials of the firm to perform well in such project would be evaluated by reviewing the results of similar business projects, i.e. other projects of similar characteristics in which the firm participated, directly or indirectly. The experience of the firm’s managers in HR management plans will be also taken into consideration. It should be noted that the development of secure assumptions regarding the potential performance of the firm in such project would be rather impossible. Only estimations can be made regarding the potentials of the firm for further growth through the specific project. On the other hand, the fact that the firm has successfully entered the global market, through its subsidiaries in India and Taiwan cannot be ignored. The needs of the firm for stabilization in the international marketplace have to be taken into account for deciding whether the engagement in such plan could result to benefits or to losses for the organization. The various implications of the particular plan will be presented and evaluated using the relevant literature. Assumptions are made based on the evidence gathered on the issues under discussion. 2. Employee engagement, role in the facilitation of business purposes In order to understand the role of employee engagement within the organization, especially regarding the facilitation of the business purposes, it would be necessary to refer primarily to the context of employee engagement, i.e. its elements and its mission. The potential forms of employee engagement are presented below; based on the form of employee engagement chosen, a relevant assumption can be produced regarding the role of employee engagement in the facilitation of business purposes. Furthermore, this view will be used in order to decide whether the suggested business plan is expected to perform well – based on its alignment with the needs of the organization but also of the employees, as reflected in their engagement to the organization. In accordance with the literature published on the specific subject, employee engagement is a rather complex concept, which is quite important for the success of business projects. However, in many cases, it is ignored being considered as having just a secondary role in daily business operations. In accordance with Federman (2009) there are four levels of employee engagement: a) at the first level, no attention is given to employee engagement; the needs of the employee are ignored. A high percentage of modern organizations belong to the specific category, about 27%, as Federman (2009, p.2) notes, b) at the second level, employee engagement is considered as just an event. In the cont ext of this thought, the following assumption is developed regarding the employee engagement: employee engagement can be included in the context of an organizational restructuring, as the result of an important change in the organization, for example ‘the change of its president’ (Federman 2009, p.2); however it could not be fully implemented. This means

Monday, August 26, 2019

Approach to managing people including flexible working arrangements Essay

Approach to managing people including flexible working arrangements and workplace diversity policies - Essay Example Flexible time can be defined as an alternative work schedule to the traditional 9 to 5 in which the employees are able to set their own schedules (Dol). The use of flexible time is viable at companies that have a work week that goes beyond 9 to 5 such as firms with double and triple shifts. The implementation of a flexible time program can be beneficial to both employees and employers. One of the greatest benefits of flexible time for the employees is that it allows them to have a better work life balance. For instance single parents can arrange their schedule so that they are free a few hours in the afternoon to go pick up their kids at school. Four additional benefits of flexible time are a reduction in the employee commuting time and fuel costs, avoidance of traffic rush and stress associated with rush hour, reduction in employee burnout due to overload, and increase in personal control over work scheduling (Heathfield, 2013). Corporations benefit from the implementation of flexib le time due to higher employee productivity. Employees that use flexible time also tend to have lower absenteeism and higher retention rate than employees working a traditional 9 to 5 week. The human resource department must closely monitor the flexible time arrangement of each employee to ensure they are complying with their 40 hours of labor each week. Companies today must manage diversity in the workplace. â€Å"Workforce diversity involves differences based on gender, race, and ethnicity, age, able-bodiedness and sexual orientation† (Schermerhorn, Hunt, Osborn, 2003, pg.5). Success in the workplace occurs when the employees are able to set their differences aside and work towards a common goal. Organizations must institute diversity policies. The diversity policy must include harsh penalties for employees that discriminate against other workers due to diversity issues. Diversity should be visualized

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Strategic Marketing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Strategic Marketing - Research Paper Example The analysis of the competitive environment of Skoda shows that, there is a very high threat of new entrants. The major competitors in the Super mini segment in the UK car industry in recent times are Corsa, Fiesta, Clio, 206 and Punto. Among the main competitors the inter-firm rivalry is very high. High competition gives rise to stiff rivalry. In this situation if we analyze the strengths of Skoda cars, we can know that the company has a very strong brand image. The brand image is created through its strong reliability and quality and good performance statistics. The strong brand image has resulted in increasing market share and profits. The following graph shows the growth in the market share of Skoda cars: The strong market position has resulted in a very low threat of substitutes. The image of Skoda cars has taken a drastic change, from a very dull model to a sexy car. Hence, this has made the bargaining power of the consumers very low. The strong product features combined with the effective advertising strategy has made the consumers turn their focus away from the price tag. The distribution network of the company is very strong because of strategic alliances and partnerships with dealers and suppliers. The strong market position has brought down the bargaining power of the suppliers and the company has benefitted by consolidating its supply chain which is very essential in maintaining the quality of the product. It is obvious that in any ... If the customer likes a product/ service, then the company starts to grow and its relative strengths also tend to increase and the company strives to serve the customer better and this becomes a cycle. In case of Skoda cars, the same argument holds good. The quality of the car speaks high about the company which is obvious in its financial results and this has increased its bargaining power of the company with its suppliers. Also the preference of the consumers towards the car has increased which has further increased its bargaining power with the consumers. But the point that has to be taken into consideration is that, there is a very high level of rivalry among the existing firms and also there is a high threat of new competition. The five forces suggested by Porter has to be combined with SWOT analysis, to adopt differentiation as its main strategy to stay ahead of competitors. The differentiation now planned by the company is regarding the research and development. Skoda has abou t 1300 engineers dedicated to develop new trendy designs taking into consideration the nature of Asian and Eastern Europe. In future the company has to focus on its strength of design and performance to have competitive advantage. Also it has to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of its competitors and has to combine with its own strengths to develop a differentiation strategy. COMPANY'S RESOURCES The analysis of the current resources of the company to develop a sustainable competitive strategy is very essential. The following are some of the resources that the company has which can be used to develop a strategy to maintain a sustainable competitive advantage: The company has a very long history of developing fine designs. Its

Capital Budgeting PROJECT ANALYSIS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Capital Budgeting PROJECT ANALYSIS - Essay Example The company’s target market will be the students and friends of the college. The students will be offered the skis at a discounted rate of $250, and the outsiders will purchase the skis at $600. Since the project will be generating revenue, there will be no need of finding other means of funding as the project’s operations are anticipated to generate enough revenue that will be ploughed back as a means of funding. The project was selected for the following reasons: First, project will be beneficial to college in terms of learning and management to the students because they will be exposed to a real-time work environment. The students of Westminster will use the company for their internships where they will be in a position to learn various management and production skills. The company is anticipated to have a stable management that will perform efficiently and effectively because of support and supervision that will be offered by the College’s Centre for Entrepre neurs and the Company’s Board of Directors. If the project is successful, it will benefit the college first, in terms of revenue generation and second, as part of the college the capital invested back into the business will subsequently also increase the asset value of the college. A careful analysis was carried out to inspect the viability of the project in terms of revenue generation, costs, payback, depreciation, rate of returns, and the projects net present value. Initial costs First, an assessment of the costs and commitments that the project will undertake will be as follows. In acquiring the company, the College will incur Total Capital Cost of $ 15,200.35. This amount is inclusive of the equipment and material cost of $15,000 that are required for the continuation of business. The equipment is valued at current market value, and it includes a $2,400 purchase order contract. The costs also involve the total transportation costs of $200, which will be employed in the mo ving truck and labor transport costs. The estimated costs for a single product are computed inclusive of all necessary materials and it is found that for each product to be manufactured the company will be spending $108. The company additionally spends an extra $100 for maintenance purposes. Labor costs have been computed as part of the company’s operating costs, and it is estimated for every three students working for the company, 10 hours a day at a rate of $8 will be costing the company a total of $240 dollars or simply $80 dollars each. Depreciation Factoring depreciation into the investment, it estimated that for the initial investment value to have a fair value of $0, it would take approximately 8 years. The company experiences a sharp depreciation in the second year because this is the estimated time when most of the initial investment materials will be depleted. Cash flow A budget analysis for the company is carried for the first eight years when it is estimated that the fair value of investment will be zero. For the eight years, the company is estimating to have minimum revenue of $10,800. The revenue is generated through a customer base comprising of students and friends of the college who will be buying the skis on a year basis. The students are estimated to buy the skis at a price of $400. The price is discounted because the students are also involved in the manufacturing process. The outsiders will be buying the skis at $600. The estimated revenues the company will

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Mastring Management 4330 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Mastring Management 4330 - Assignment Example The management team is normally on the ground, and therefore; may have their new ideas and plans, which they may want incorporated. Hence, leaving out the managers in strategy and plan formulation will result in the new ideas and plans not implemented in a timely manner. Persuasion is one of the power and influence strengths that I will bring in the new company. The use of reason allows other employees in the company to see why the new proposed ideas make sense. Consequently, this will determine whether the ideas will be implemented in a timely manner or not. In cases whereby the ideas will not be implemented, the use of intimidation will become necessary. Since the managers still report to their former line managers, it is important that managers adjust to the new authority. In addition, applying pressure on the management team will increase productivity and reduce absenteeism (300). Introducing an open door policy increases the interaction between the subordinates, management and the vice president. In turn, as the vice president, I will know what is happening on the ground, which is important in decision making and increasing power and influence. In the case of absenteeism on the production floor, the retribution strategy will be effective. The managers on the production floor have a close connection with their subordinates, which prevent them from taking any action on their absenteeism. This has led to decrease in productivity. Putting pressure on the manager responsible, threatening him with sacking, will make him act on the absenteeism. Reciprocity strategy will be effective in tackling the issue of decreased productivity. Offering incentives and rewards will motivate both the managers and employees to meet their set targets. Successful implementation of the new ideas, strategies and plans will require the managers to understand them. Using the reason strategy, the values and set targets and achievements

Friday, August 23, 2019

BP touts itself as green article, about the BP oil spill in 2010 Article

BP touts itself as green , about the BP oil spill in 2010 - Article Example While BP appears to be the sole responsible entity to the accident, involved negligence in activities that led to the spill identify liabilities to many parties. The contractor company that was responsible for operations at the time of the blast was for example an independent contractor. Similarly, federal supervisors who ought to have detected any form of negligence towards liability approved the operations that preceded the blast. BP however exercised significant control over its contractor. Four parties therefore played a role into the blast that culminated into the oil spill. BP played a role as the owner of the site, â€Å"Transocean and Halliburton† who were the managers of the sight and the federal regulators who had the authority to supervise the operations at the sight (BBC, P. 1). Negligence on all the parties was therefore a major set of events towards the accident. This is because the design that was used at the well’s base for sealing was inappropriate for the applied type of cement. Similarly, preliminary tests were done on the structure and flaws detected, but were misjudged for success. There were also signs of explosion but the workers failed to identify the signs that could have been used to establish preventive measures (BBC, P. 1). The events after the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico were widely reported by the media together with investigation based documentary and reports from inquiries.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Marketing Mix Essay Example for Free

Marketing Mix Essay Broadly speaking, in order to maximise profits, different firms use distinct tools to perform strategy and decisions, such as SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis and marketing mix analysis. In terms of the marketing mix, as an important concept in the subject of business studies, it refers to â€Å"a balance between the four main elements of marketing [is] needed to carry out the marketing strategy. It consists of the ‘4ps’: product, price, promotion and place† (MarcouseÃŒ  and Surridge et al., 2011:141). Firms can build an effective marketing strategy by using the marketing mix as a tool, and it is possible that business will fail if the marketing mix is not correct. The aim of the essay is to analyse elements of the marketing mix. Initially, it will discuss four elements, which are the product, price, place and promotion respectively. Then, it will evaluate the most vital component in the marketing mix, which is the product. The first component of the marketing mix is the product. â€Å"A product is a good or service produced by a business or organization, and made available to the public for consumption† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008). Each product has a different feature, which could be the unique selling points of them. Roams and Cota (2008:152) attempt to define this term is, â€Å"A unique selling point (USP) is a short statement that explains why a customer should buy from you instead of your competitorsin. For example, Apple Corporation has a unique and independent operation system for their iPhone. It has been argued that there are three levels of product, first of which is core or generic product (Levitt, 1986:361). This is the basic and general physical product, in other words, it is the product that has minimum features and the consumer would expect it to have. In a microwave oven example, it should have enough space inside to put food and it would be expected to work effectively. The second level of the product is known as actual or tangible product. This is, touchable and physical property of the product. Young (2008:130) suggests this level of product will contain the product’s name, style, brand name, label, packaging and quality level. This level of product provides a material and a clearer image of the product to customers. The next and last level is called augmented product. Leader and Kyritsis (1990:12) explain this product provides privileges and additional services to the consumer; it also can reflect the differentiation of the product. For instance, services such as free delivery, discounts and additional purchases. The second element of the marketing mix is price. There are two main factors can determine the price of product, which is price elasticity and pricing strategy respectively. Blythe (2012:154) examines the elasticity of demand will illustrate that different categories have different extent of sensitivity when the price changes. Consequently, it could help firms make a better decision when they set the price. Thompson and Machin (2003:65) support that, â€Å"a business must know how responsive their products are to price changes so that they can assess the potential impact of, say, special offers or a price increase†. The next factor is the pricing strategy. Also, it is more imperative than price elasticity when firms make their price decisions. Firms use a serious of pricing strategies, however, the pricing method of cost plus is used most commonly, which is the basic form of all pricing decisions. It refers to a business calculates the average cost and then add a mark-up to the final selling price. Ashwin and Merrills (2008:347) point out another price strategy is called discriminatory pricing; this means a firm set different price for different target groups. As the description from Thompson and Machin (2003:65), discriminatory price refers to â€Å"different price is charged to different group people at different times†. For instance, a cinema charges a different price for students and adults. Besides, it charges different for daytime and evening showings as well. In addition, psychology-pricing strategy is also used quite frequently in supermarkets. For example, Morrison’s sell a bottle of milk  £1.99 rather than  £2, hence customers will perceive the price as being lower. Levitt (1986) argues discriminatory pricing mainly relies on emotional responses from the consumer. The third component in the marketing mix is the place. It concerns the way in which a product is distributed. Stimpson (2005:16) points out â€Å"the ‘place’ decision involves making the product or service available to  consumers in the most appropriate way†. Distribution channel as the most important factor could affect the decision of the place. There are numbers of factors can determine how the product is distributed. Blythe (2012:173) suggests one of them is the marketing aim. The increasing scale raised enterprise intends to expand as wide a distribution as possible. Furthermore, legal restrictions should be regarded as well. Stone (2001) states there are numerous products are not permitted to sell in some places. For instance, it is forbidden to sell the alcohol at the petrol station. In general, direct distribution, retailers, wholesalers and agent are four core channels of distribution. Direct distribution is the producers sell products to customers directly without intermediaries. Blythe (2012:175) explains this, â€Å"direct distribution channels are typical of personal services such as hairdressing†. For retailers, it is an organization that offers goods to customers. Tesco and Wal-Mart, for example. In addition, Koter (2005) describes that, in many market, wholesalers act as a link between producers and consumers. Wholesalers usually buy goods from manufacturers then sell goods to the final consumers or retailers. In contrast, agents do not actually purchase goods; they only help manufacturers to sell. Thompson and Machin (2003:80) claim that, â€Å" agent never actually owns a product, they usually connect buyers and sellers and manage the transfer of the good†. The final element in the marketing mix is promotion. Promotion is not only advertising but also a communication tool between producers and consumers. â€Å"promotion is about communicating with customers and potential customers† (Ashwin and Merrills et al., 2008:331). Promotion is essential for a product because it is able to increase the demand for products. Young (2008) suggests promotion can raise emotion, concern or awareness for products or issues. In addition, promotion can protect and preserve the market share as well. The methods of above the line and below the line are two main types methods of promotion. As for above the line promotion, it refers to a firm uses the advertising media but does not has direct control. The most recognizable  face of advertising is television. Because of it can provide the introduction of product with colorful images. Wolinski and Coates (2008:373) state that, â€Å"television has the advantage of being memorable, as it can present both moving images and sound†. Thompson and Machin (2003:74) examines the below the line promotion includes promotional media over which the firm has control. For example, personal selling, it means a salesman or a sales team who regularly visits consumers in person. Having introduced each element of the marketing mix, the essay will now evaluate the most crucial element in the marketing mix – product. There are two principal reasons for product as the most important element in the marketing mix. First of all, product as the key component makes the entirely process of the link between customers and producers possible. Amount of sales promotion and price reduction will not help an enterprise to achieve their market target if the product is not appropriate and attractable. Stimpson (2005:24) agrees with this view that, â€Å" a balance and integrated mix is essential, but without a product that offers customers real and distinctive benefits, even the best-laid marketing plans can be wasted†. In the mean time, Kazmi (2007), in her work, Marketing Management, suggests that the product or service is the most vital element, without a good product, you have nothing. Furthermore, Adcock and Halborg (2001) sustains that the attention of customers will be attracted if a firm can develop a high quality product, hence, the profits that the firm makes will increase. As a result, the pote ntial for business success is significantly enhanced. The second reason is that products enable to decide a firm’s profits, sales, market share, image, reputation and stature. Additionally, product can also determine the scope and direction of a company’s activity. Product acts a heart in the whole marketing mix. Most of the scholars support that view. Stimpson (2005:24) points out that, â€Å"the product is usually considered to be the most important component of the marketing mix†. Stone (2001) believed that in most case the product itself is the key to a successful marketing mix. However, there will be instances that when other components dominate  the marketing mix. Wolinski and Coates (2008:346) argues that, â€Å" At a festival, only one type of bottled water might be available, so the place is the most important factor†. In contrast, Baker (1991) claims when consumer with limited money might choose the product with the lower price, this is due to consumer has insufficient resources to purchase additi onal products. In this case, price is the most significant component. To recapitulate, the essay has introduced and analysed four elements product, price, place and promotion in the marketing mix. Marketing mix as a tool is able to help firms make efficient business plan and strategy. Each element is playing a very vital role in the marketing mix. Furthermore, the essay has identified the product is the most crucial part since the product is the key component linking between the producers and consumers. It can be concluded that all the elements in the marketing are essential and necessary, while in the most case, product is the most essential component in the marketing mix. An enterprise should coordinate and integrate the four elements so that the firm can build an efficient marketing strategy and achieves more profits as possible. Reference list: Ashwin, A., Merrills, S. and Thompson, R. 2008. Collins biz/ed AS business studies. London: Collins Educational. Baker, M.(1991) Marketing, An Introductory Text, 5th edn. London: Macmillan Education Ltd. Blythe, J. 2012. Essentials of marketing. 5th edn. Harlow: Pearson. Felina C. Young and Cristobal M. Pagoso. 2008. Principles of Marketing 1st edn. Manila: Red Book Store. Kotler, P. 2005. Principles of marketing. 4th edn. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall/FinancialTimes. Leader, W. G. and Kyritsis, N. 1990. Fundamentals of marketing. New edn. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Levitt,T.: 1986. The Marketing Imagination. New York: Free express. MarcouseÃŒ , I., Surridge, M. and Gillespie, A. 2011. Business studies for A level. Abingdon, Oxon [UK]: Hodder Education. Ramos, A. and Cota, S. 2008. Search Engine Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill. Stimpson, P. 2005. Place. Business Review, 11:4-16 Stimpson, P. 2004. The Product Decision. Business Review, 11:1-24 Stone, P. 2001. Make Marketing Work for you. Oxford: How To Books. Thompson, R. and Machin, D. 2003. AS Business Studies.1st edn. London: Collins Educational Wolinski, J. and Coates, G. 2008. AQA AS business studies. 2nd edn. Deddington, Oxfordshire: Philip Allan Updates. a

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Deprivation of Land Ownership

Deprivation of Land Ownership The surest way to deprive a peasant of his land is to give him a secure title and make it freely negotiable. R Schickele 1962, cited in Tim Hanstad, Designing Land Registration Systems for Developing Countries Am. U. Intl L. Rev. 13 (1997) 667. Discuss. Some see land dispossession as the cornerstone of the past colonial key economic and political policies that has lead to the capitalism as we see it. Land dispossession is not only established on land grab by use of force but also has been intensified by new innovative types of property and property regulation, confirming some of the Loakean philosophies of property and its relationship to society and its diverse make of ethnicity and race. Furthermore the title also suggests that there is a relationship between dispossession and social and economic standing within society. This article shall examine the broader implication of the above quotation and try to examine the relationship between the powerfuls (those who are economically and or socially superior to the other) ability to deprive the lesser from their land and whether or not there are any obstacles in their way, or has the whole structure been set up been set up as the title suggest to make it easier. To understand the above assertion it may be necessary to understand a capitalist approach to land and dispossession and before that we need to understand registration in context of this question and its historical development. Does this question suggest that dispossession of land is an exclusive relation between the rich and the poor, or is the relation more complex and less sinister than is been suggested. To make sense of this the article will try to first break it down to its component parts and then try to piece it together. Nevertheless ownership of land is a natural phenomenon in our societies, however in the scheme of human history this is a new development. , in the long sweep of human existence, it is a fairly recent invention. Many question arise from this statement, that where did these ideas originate, what is really ownership of land, and how can it be that a line drawn on the land by a sword can denote ownership and control. These assertion in our modern society are alien, as land ownership is so ingrained into our psyche. Surely before you are dispossessed or deprived if something you must have owned it or had rights to it first. Pre-Registration Before title registration there was John Locke. In his writings Two Treaties of Government[1] Locke summarise prehistory on land and ownership as a God (the god of the Abrahamic religions) given inheritance to the Children of Men[2] in common, this is a superstition that in this scenario one can or has a right to own land or a right to own land. However this is not John Lockes view on ownership of land. His starting position is that man has an ownership in himself[3] which is exclusive to him against all others. Then he states that that a mans physical labouring and what he creates from his own hands is also his own exclusive ownership. What Locke then goes on to summarise profoundly that then what he toils on the land and what he produces then becomes his own property too and becomes excluded from common ownership[4]. In summary what Locke can be summed up to say is that if man build a house on the land it is his house and if he works the land because of his labour it is his land, a nd thus the philosophy of Locke can be used to ascribe prehistory ownership of land. Agriculture made the mans connection to the earth more intense. Tilling the soil, making homesteads and communities all contributed to a more direct investment in the land. Nonetheless this was not the ownership of land as we know it. Historical context is incredibly significant, in particularly with concerns to land ownership, this is important and history of land entitlement started in the United Kingdom and was exported to its colonies. This history is important to the context of this article as the histories of many dispossessed people are from the former colonies. While land was owned by the Anglo-Saxon in England prior to the invasion of England in 1066, it was William the First that usurp the land and redistributed it to his loyalist in favour for services rendered and to be rendered[5]. He devised tenures, the kings loyal man provided him with services which might be providing horsemen and other personal who did the kings business, tenure. The ownership of the land thus remained with the crown. This was the preserve of the Common Law. In Pottages writing[6] The Measure of Land, he describes the archaic ways land conveyancing took place in the past (pre-registration documentation of land ownership). He describes the lengths to which potential owners would have to good to try and get good (or better) title to the land they wished to own. This could be by medieval turf cutting[7]with a sword, or to hold fate and events as to instil it into the memory of the local as a symbolic time so that the event could denote the day the land changed owners, this grew to a stage that to have good title would mean that the possessor would have as much historical documentation as trusts in writing to prove if there were a dispute that the possessor had better title, however any possessor could be dispossessed regardless of the quantity of documents at hand if someone put up a document that may show that they had had the better title by whatever means and that that hadnt to date been extinguished. Yes complicated and fraught with pit falls. Possession at that time was the first evidence towards ownership, coin the phrase that possession was nine tenth of the law accurate alluding to the fact that that one tenth could still dispossess you if you had not covered or collected all the information. However the earliest ownership of the land is near enough historically impossible to prove, so long as you had enough retrospective history on the property in your possession you would be unlikely to be dispossessed of it. The prospective buyer would need to be satisfied the chain of ownership could be evidenced to a specific point in time, before 1875 this would have been 60 years[8], in genealogical terms approximately four generations. Long lines of historical record to the ownership of land would cement the ownership of the land and the elite families that owned them. This supposition established the elite classes ownership of estate. The longer these few families kept possession of the land the more it hid in some case highly contested and disputes over land[9]. Registration In an article written by Keenan[10], she says that title registration has become recognised as a modern globalising trend in land law. Keenan say that these measures are being readily and free being accepted by governments in greater numbers across a multitude of jurisdictions globally, and where it is not being done then the world bank and the International Monetary Fund are demanding it as parts of global deals whether the purpose it to unify or make easier land acquisition we can only speculate. With the induction of the industrial revolution, came the need and the demand for more secure ownership of land. During the 1700s law relating to real property stagnated in statutory terms, however doctrine continued to evolve by judges in the courts, for example under judges like Lord Nottingham (from 1673-1682), Lord King (1725-1733), Lord Hardwicke (1737-1756), Lord Henley (1757-1766), and Lord Eldon (1801-1827) . As the industrial revolution took hold globally and trade expanded, the influence of new money of the business and industrial classes was also growing, and the once dominant wealth and political clout of the landed gentry was in decline. Adam Smith discussed in his book The Wealth of Nations that the land owners were able demand and take rent from others for very little cost in monetary term . Through the 1800s there were many attempts at trying to replace the document based ownership to some kind of registration system. The colonialist settlers living in the colonies had a different experience of societal and political experience than those who were back in England. At the time the settlements were being colonised in North America and Australia[11] by the British. As land was being possessed, occupied or settled in the colonies, a form of legal confirmation was needed in order to give the settlers security and title. So in 1857, Robert Torrens the prime minister of South Australia decided that he was going to dedicate his time in land reform and in particular to develop a land registration system for transfer of land in the colonies. He had indentified that on occasions the English system of land conveyance was sometimes more costly than the cost the land itself[12]. The Torrens System In discussing the establishment system of title and the induction of Torrens, it is helpful study the background and direction of what Torrens wanted to establish once he finally established the system in South Australia[13]. There are important difference between what was happening in the past and the Torrens system, crucially the biggest change from the past was to create centralisation registration of the Title. The reason was to combat the past systems failing and in particular the skewed character of the old system and to create a safer alternative on the central system[14]. Torrens was of the opinion that the old system was completely redundant and not fit for purpose[15] and because of this Torrens set up the new and better and principally fair system. The idea Torrens based his system on was originated on the Mirror Principle, Curtain Principle and also the insurance Principle[16]. The words may suggest the Mirror Principle in the reflection of the ground realities and the fa cts around the owners title, the Curtain Principle would hide any defects and therefore the purchaser could rely exclusively on the just having the registration document and finally the Insurance Principle underwriting any possible errors and providing compensation when a mistakes occurs[17], what this gave was provided was assurance of title and ease of use of the system. Torrens system was described as not being a system of registration of title, but being a case of title by registration[18]. One of the cornerstones key to Torrens system was something called indefeasibility, meaning the new title owner would only be liable to interest registered at the time[19]. However at the being deferred indefeasibility, was accepted[20]. What this entailed was that in case of fraud to a bona fide buyer, indefeasibility was not granted until both and blameless owner and an blameless buyer were present. This was however later overturned in court[21]. The success[22] of the system comes down it simplicity. To avoid the difficulties for the buyer when doing legal searches, Torrens Mirror principle was established. This did not give any guarantee of validity but simply provided priority if valid[23]. As Keenan says in her article, on this same subject, that, the Torrenss system made it simpler, cost effective and speedier for investors to re-sale the property for the investors then before the Torrens system was introduced. English Land Registration The first formal land registration system came about in the in England four years after the establishment of Torrens system in 1862. These were followed by two further Acts in 1875 and 1897[24]. Then in 1925, the Law of Property Act 1925 was passed and enacted. The big difference between the two systems was that PLA 1925 allowed for overriding interests, like easements[25], squatters rights[26], and lease with terms of 21 years or less[27], these were similar to some of the indefeasibility expressed in the Torrens system. Dispossession By Torrens Because of Torrens and the Curtain principle any previous historical connections with interest in and any entitlement thereto where hidden behind the curtain once the land was registered. Once registered anything that came before vanished[28], the people how did have the said relationships could effectively become trespassers on the land that they freely roamed or lived in historically. The Torrens system found great favour by other colonialist and spread quickly through the colonies like an epidemic. Dispossession The idea of dispossession has been insidious in the writings of academics and campaigners who want investigate, write detail of and confront ethnic capitalism. The cruelty of dispossession includes and is not restricted to, being dispossessed of property whether it is your land or your home, country, your tools and resources of survival, your historical back ground, language and your own person, your character, can describe in one way or a combination of ways a large number of the global populous at the currents times. The spread of imperialism across the world has not been forgotten. However the aftermath of imperialism or colonialism has left its bitter scars, but also has developed into modern forms too. Modern capitalisms has its own incarnations of reasoning, influence and manifestations (collectively known as Cultures of Dispossession. From what has already described above this article can demonstrate how dispossession has become a common place which is not exclusively to economics, societal or the legal register. The various manifestations of dispossession demonstrates irregular effects of hundreds of years of capitalist accumulation focused around action of the possessive personage and the consequent result of ever ready onto rationally and politically dispossessed of the ability suitably own or to be free. The sexual orientation/ gender and rascality is not merely dependent but are the construct of this article in the sense that these are features that are re-occurring theme in dispossession. Holistically this article is demonstrating that dispassion by title is just ones means by which dispossession happens. By concentrating on means on the ways of dispossession as one of the clear modes of authority of colonial capitalist arrangement, in this article we have already looked at judicial machinery used to dispossess. In the alternative possession has to be in the realms of the judicial belongs ideologically to a spatial sphere, that takes into account current political and economic thinking in a verity of ways. However the focus of the nest section shall be on dispossession by design. Foreclosure K-Sue Park in the article Money Mortgages and Conquest of America, highlights a discussion of foreclosure, the modern phenomena of dispossession. When the colonialist settled in America they developed on the English law that they had inherited by virtue of their origins, to develop and create their own individual and unique model taking into account and adopting to the new ground realities of a conquered land[29]. Furthermore the development of mortgage in America, followed one fundamental constructive change across the settlers kingdom (the colonies) and that was the how simple foreclosure had become (was it by default or design?) on land, bordering on land being dealt with in the same way as chattels, which was a contrast from the difference of land and chattel had be maintained in the old English system[30]. Academics have made it apparent that the everyday threat of repossession (the English word used for the America for dispossession) in the way mortgages are practiced by way of a uniquely American colonial notion[31]. The narrow window from which the American historian view their own historical prospective of property/mortgages dealings, illustrated ho that the transaction by enlarge occurs amongst white European / American during the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century. The alterations in mortgage can be described as happening earlier then some historians mention, and the interpretation of that is to assume the acceptance that the relaxed and unimpeded, prevalent repossession first happened on connection with dispossession of the natives. On the onset it has to be understood the originality of the American mortgage, and it is also crucial to realise that extremely lasting practice of protecting individual association to land in English property law before settlers left to colonise. The deeply held principle predilection was mirrored by limitations found uniquely in English mortgages. Before the seventeenth century, at the time the first British settlers setup colonies in America, it was near on impossible to detach someone from his land because of debt dealing through English law.[32] Previously the earliest documented use of land to secure debt was established an instrument known as the gage[33]. From the inception of debts incurring a cost of interest payments as a type of usury at this period, English lenders who are allowed to a gage, were allowed to collect the rents and the fruit of the land[34]. The benefits granted to lenders at that time, is not without difficulty able to connect the right and duties that exi st by law in estate currently, the benefits ordained to those lenders of the past emanate directly from the charged land. A chief justice of the king of England in the twelfth century, explained and identified two types of gages the living gage and the dead gage or the Vif gage and the Mort gage[35]. In the Vif gage the lend and adjoin the fruits and rents towards the debt with the expectation to reduce the debt. By contrast if you had the mort gage the leader is forbidden from collecting the fruit or other reciprocal benefits to reduce the amount of debt but can be accumulated as a profit to the amount of loan.[36] As the mort gage was the system that that avoided the prohibition on interest, it become the chosen gage[37]. At the beginning the right of the lender was surprisingly a feeble, but with the course if time have more likely have been able to possession for the duration of a loan. Scholar of business institute are brought closer to affiliation with the law because of the closeness of the connection actions of the association and the drama intrinsic in the great efforts among and bounded by partners.[38] Conclusion It must firstly be stated that the study of dispossession id fraught with complexities, more difficult it such a complex area is from the myriad of information and the intricate and complex writing out there, it is difficult for the author to stay focus, rather than what is likely to occur of vying off at tangent only to rein oneself back in. The conclusion for this article has to come from the writing of one of the best pieces written work read by this author, and that is from Sarah Keenans Smoke Curtains and Mirrors: The Production of race Through Time and Title Registration[39]. Why? Because Keenan has been able to stay extremely focused on the theme through-out and written a great article. Nevertheless this author has the perilous task to follow that. The main feature of this article has been the development of title registration systems and how they all seem to be linked and woven from the same cloth. Registration was developed by the forced necessity of an overly complex, convoluted system that still left the buyer at risk even after investing huge amounts of time and money. The irony of the old system is that it could dispossess some one of their title by default as the system had no safety net, there should have been a label on the old system that alway read buyer be weary. Secondly we discovered that the landed gentry liked the old system so much that we discovered to this they hold property in the old way, where it is passed down from generation to generation described by Keenan as a multi generational monopoly of estate ownership. We learnt that the same gentry that owned the land also were the politician that had to bring in law reforms. It took nearly eighty years from when the idea was first floated to the inception of the Law of Property Act 1925. The comparable and original practical system was introduced in South Australia by Torrens. While it was in principle and prima facia a good system, the undertones and its net affects were very dark indeed. Torrens system was easy to use, it was quick and it was cost effective. But in its creation was hidden the mechanism by which the aboriginal indigenous people would be dispossesses. Torrens was notably the same man who previously had dispossessed the poor Irish farmers in the Potato famine, and gave t he titles cheaply to the gentry. It may be easy to dispossess a poor man by giving him a title and then freely negotiating his property from him for next to no value. However why go through all the that when it can be done by a doctrine formulated by Torrens, this document was so popular in what it could do that it was adopted very quickly in the colonies and whole nations of indigenous people were dispossessed, whether in Australia, Canada, America, India or Africa. A discussion was tried to be articulated in this article that there were other ways of easily dispossessing poor people, one being older than we might have thought, and that is by debt arrears and repossessions or as the Americans call it foreclosure. Finally it is easy to say but harder to articulate in a limited article the many ways of dispossessing the poor. [1] Page 327 Chapter V, Of Property by John Locke; Two Treaties of Government first published in 1960, from his original book and additional found manuscripts. [2] Page 327 Chapter V, Of Property by John Locke; Two Treaties of Government first published in 1960, from his original book and additional found manuscripts. [3] Page 328 Chapter V, Of Property by John Locke; Two Treaties of Government first published in 1960, from his original book and additional found manuscripts. [4] Page 329 Chapter V, Of Property by John Locke; Two Treaties of Government first published in 1960, from his original book and additional found manuscripts. [5] [6] The Measure of Land by Alain Pottage, The Modern Law Review 1994, Volume 57, pages 361-385 [7] The Measure of Land by Alain Pottage, The Modern Law Review 1994, Volume 57, page 361 [8] Smoke, Curtains and Mirrors: The Production of Race Through Time and Title Registration, Sarah Keenan, School of Law, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK; Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016, Published 27 October 2016. [9] Smoke, Curtains and Mirrors: The Production of Race Through Time and Title Registration, Sarah Keenan, School of Law, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK; Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016, Published 27 October 2016. [10] Smoke, Curtains and Mirrors: The Production of Race Through Time and Title Registration, Sarah Keenan, School of Law, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK; Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016, Published 27 October 2016. [11] Smoke, Curtains and Mirrors: The Production of Race Through Time and Title Registration, Sarah Keenan, School of Law, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK; Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016, Published 27 October 2016. [12] Smoke, Curtains and Mirrors: The Production of Race Through Time and Title Registration, Sarah Keenan, School of Law, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK; Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016, Published 27 October 2016. [13] Kelvin F K Low, The Nature of Torrens Indefeasibility: Understanding The Limits Of Personal Equities [2009] 33 Melbourne University Law Review 205, 206. [14] Kelvin F K Low, The Nature of Torrens Indefeasibility: Understanding The Limits Of Personal Equities [2009] 33 Melbourne University Law Review 205, 206. [15] Kelvin F K Low, The Nature of Torrens Indefeasibility: Understanding The Limits Of Personal Equities [2009] 33 Melbourne University Law Review 205, 206. [16] Richard Wu and Mohd Yazid Bin Zu Kepli; Expedition of Torrens system in the common law world and its Asian development in Singapore and Hong Kong ;(2012) 2 Property Law Review 99, 102. [17] Richard Wu and Mohd Yazid Bin Zu Kepli; Expedition of Torrens system in the common law world and its Asian development in Singapore and Hong Kong; (2012) 2 Property Law Review 99, 102. [18] Breskvar v Wall (1971) 126 CLR 376, at 385 per Barwick CJ [19] Tang Hang Wu, Beyond The Torrens Mirror: A Framework of The In Personam Exception To Indefeasibility (2008) 32 Melbourne University Law Review 672, 672. [20] Roy A. Woodman, The Torrens System in New South Wales: One Hundred Years of Indefeasibility of Title (1970) 44 The Australian Law Journal 96. [21] Frazer v Walker [1967] 1 AC 569. [22] Lynden Griggs, In Personam, Garcia v NAB and the Torrens System Are they Reconcilable? (2001) 1(1) Queensland University of Technology Law and Justice Journal 76, 86. [23] Kelvin F K Low, The Nature of Torrens Indefeasibility: Understanding The Limits Of Personal Equities [2009] 33 Melbourne University Law Review 206. [24] The Land Transfer Act 1875, 38 39 Vict, c 87; Land Transfer Act 1897, 60 61 Vict, c 65. [25] LRA 1925 s 70(1)(a). [26] LRA 1925 s 70(1)(f). [27] LRA 1925 s 70(1)(k). [28] Smoke, Curtains and Mirrors: The Production of Race Through Time and Title Registration, Sarah Keenan

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Synthesising Benzocaine via Reflux with a Condenser

Synthesising Benzocaine via Reflux with a Condenser Synthesis and characterisation of benzocaine experiment practical report Aim: The experiment was to synthesise benzocaine via reflux with a condenser and was characterised by examining at the infra-red spectrum and chemical shifts of NMR. Introduction: Benzocaine belongs to a collection of medication identified as local anaesthetics and generally consumed as a topical pain reliever. Its mechanism of action is to prevent nerve conduction when applied locally in appropriate concentration to nerve tissues. The main benefit of local anaesthetics is that it does not cause unconsciousness to the patient and its action could be reversible. The use of local anaesthetics presents complete tissue recovery with no permanent damage. The intention of the experiment was to synthesise benzocaine, an ester, from 4-aminobenzoic acid, a carboxylic acid, by Fischer Esterification. The mechanism in figure 1 was to combined 4-aminobenzoic acid and ethanol in a reflux reaction with the addition of sulphuric acid as a catalyst to produce the product. Figure 1 Method: In week one of the experiment, 4-aminobenzoic acid (3.0g), methylated spirits (20cm3) and concentrated sulphuric acid (3.0ml) was added to a dry round bottom flask (100cm3). A condenser was then placed onto the flask. Next, the mixture was placed on a heating mantle and the reflux reaction was carried out for thirty minutes. Afterwards, the reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature and the condenser was removed. The mixture was gently stirred with a glass rod while sodium hydroxide solution 20 % (20cm3) was added slowly until the mixture has reached neutral using strips of pH paper. Subsequently, pour the contents into a beaker containing 70cm3 of ice and rinse the flask with fresh distilled water into the beaker until the capacity is 150cm3. A Buchner funnel was then used in vacuum filtration to isolate the product. Lastly the product was transferred to a watch glass and dried in the oven for 15 minutes. In week two the experiment was repeated, conversely, isoprop yl alcohol was used instead of methylated spirits. Results: Percentage Yield = (Actual Yield / Theoretical Yield) x 100 1st week’s percentage yield C7H7NO2= 127 + 7 + 14 + 32= 137g/mol C2H5OH= 24 + 5 + 16 + 1= 46 g/mol C9H11NO2= 108 + 11 + 14 + 32 = 165g/mol 1st step: 3g divide 137 g/mol = 0.0219mol à ¯Ã†â€™Ã… ¸ limiting reagent 2nd step: 0.789g/ml of methylated spirit x 20ml (used) = 15.78g 3rd step: 15.78g divide 46g/mol = 0.343mol 4th step: 0.0219mol x 165g/mol = 3.6135g theoretical mass of benzocaine First week’s product mass (benzocaine): 2.28grams Percentage yield: 2.28g/3.6135g= 0.63 x 100 = 63% 2nd week’s percentage yield C7H7NO2= 127 + 7 + 14 + 32 = 137g/mol C2H5OH= 24 + 5 + 16 + 1= 46g/mol C10H13NO2= 179g/mol 1st step: 3g divide 137g/mol= 0.0219mol à ¯Ã†â€™Ã… ¸ limiting reagent 2nd step: 0.786g/ml of Isopropyl alcohol x 20ml (used) = 15.72g 3rd step: 15.72g divide 46g/mol = 0.342mol 4th step: 0.0219mol x 179g/mol = 3.92g theoretical mass of Isopropyl 4-aminobenzoate Second week’s product mass (Isopropyl 4-aminobenzoate): 0.29grams Percentage yield: 0.29g/3.92g= 7.4% Ethyl 4-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) first week’s product Experiment melting point: 92-96 degrees Celsius Reference melting point: 80-90 degrees Celsius Isopropyl 4-aminobenzoate second week’s product Experiment melting point: 83-85 degrees Celsius Reference melting point: 84 degrees Celsius 13Carbon-NMR4-aminobenzoic acid: Benzocaine: H-NMR 4-aminobenzoic acid: Benzocaine: Infrared Analysis (Benzocaine) Week 1 product: (Isopropyl 4-aminobenzoate) Week 2 product: DEPT-135 NMR 4-aminobenzoic acid Benzocaine Discussion of results: In the experiment, the final appearance of both products appears to be crystalline like powders after drying them in the oven. The first product (benzocaine) melting point appears to be 92-96 degrees Celsius and compare to the theoretical value, it was considered high. Conversely, the second product (isopropyl 4-aminobenzoic acid) melting point was 83-85 degrees Celsius and compare to the theoretical value, it was within the range. Due to the fact that the first product has a higher melting point, it is considered that sample was heated too fast using the heating apparatus or the period the product was in the oven may have been too short therefore excess water are trapped in the product causing extra hydrogen bonding in the molecule, hence higher energy was needed to break the bonds. Melting point accuracy depicts purity of the product therefore the shorter the range of melting point implies a productive synthesis. Furthermore, the mass was obtained as the actual yield from benzocaine and isopropyl 4-aminobenzoate to calculate the percentage yield. The theoretical yield of benzocaine was 3.6135grams and the mass obtained in the experiment was 2.28grams, giving a percentage yield of 63 %. This is a high percentage yield, representing a productive synthesis. Conversely, in the second experiment the theoretical yield was 3.92 grams and the mass obtained in the experiment was 0.29grams, giving a percentage yield of 7.4 %. This is a relatively low yield, representing a poor synthesis. This failure synthesis may have been due to several errors including inaccurate instrumental handling techniques, loss of product due to several transferences, inaccurate measurement of resources, and not scraping the entire product out of the Buchner funnel. (4-aminobenzoic acid) (Benzocaine) In H-NMR, 4-aminobenzoic acid and benzocaine was identified. By looking at 4-aminobenzoic acid, there were 5 distinct peaks representing 5 distinct proton atmospheres available in the molecule. However the structure of benzocaine, the H-NMR identifies 6 distinct peaks representing 6 distinct proton atmospheres. By observing the peaks in the both molecules, similar singlet peaks were found. The singlet peak for 4-aminobenzoic acid was 5.7747ppm and benzocaine was 4.0609ppm.Both singlet groups were considered amine groups since the 2 hydrogen connected to the nitrogen (pink) creates the same environment therefore only 1 peak was found. In both molecules, the amine group is considered as an electron donating group since it shields the hydrogen on the adjacent carbons (blue) in the aromatic ring. This shielding causes the hydrogen on the adjacent carbons (blue) to have a lower chemical shift in the spectrum than the hydrogen on the other carbons (red) in the aromatic ring. Furthermore, the hydrogen on the other carbons (red) has a higher chemical shift due to the close distance with the carbonyl group. The carbonyl group is electronegative therefore shifting them at a lower magnetic field. There is a distinct peak appeared in 4-aminobenzoic acid spectrum, showing a chemical shift of 12 ppm which is considered to be part of the hydrogen of the –COOH (light blue). As benzocaine has a longer chain compared to 4-aminobenzoic acid, further observation was needed. In benzocaine a peak was found at about 4.2907ppm-4.3441ppm and has a splitting pattern of quartet. A quartet shows that it had 3 adjacent hydrogen atoms therefore it is related to CH2 (green). Furthermore, another peak was found at about 1.3447ppm-1.3804ppm and has a splitting pattern of triplet. A triplet shows that it had 2 adjacent hydrogen atoms therefore it is related to CH3. Since the carbon of CH2 is closer to the oxygen comparing to CH3 therefore it is more de-shielded causing it to be found at a lower magnetic field. Lastly, there were distinct peaks seen in the spectrum for solvent in benzocaine and 4-aminobenzoic acid. In 4-aminobenzoic acid H-NMR, a peak was found at about 2.4630ppm-2.4676ppm and was found to be the solvent DMSO. In benzocaine, a singlet peak was found at 7.2626pm and was found to be the solvent chloroform. In 13Carbon-NMR, the 4-aminobenzoic acid spectrum has 5 peaks representing 5 distinct carbon atmospheres and benzocaine has 7 peaks representing 7 distinct carbon atmospheres. The peaks are at about 165ppm-168ppm for both molecules represents the occurrence of the carbonyl group (C=O). Furthermore, the solvents were seen on both spectrums. One of 4-aminobenzoic acid’s peaks was at 40.1326ppm which represents DMSO, and benzocaine’s peak was at 77.1052 which represent Chloroform. In the DEPT-135 NMR (Distortionless Enhancement by Polarisation Transfer), it only exemplifies the occurrence between three kinds of carbon groups, (-CH), (-CH2) and (-CH3). (-CH) and (-CH3) carbons are identified through the positive peaks whereas (-CH2) is identified through the negative peaks on the spectrum. By looking at the 4-aminobenzoic acid spectrum, there are two positive peaks representing those are either (-CH) or (-CH3) carbon groups. In the benzocaine spectrum, the occurrence of (-CH) and (-CH3) carbon groups was identified via the positive peaks. However a negative peak was also identified representing a (-CH2) carbon group has occurred in the spectrum. The Infrared spectroscopy is useful for analysing the occurrence of different functional groups of the chemical structures such as benzocaine and isopropyl 4-aminobenzoate. By analysing both products, absorption peaks at about 3361cm-1-3457cm-1 on the spectrum were seen at both products. It was considered that the occurrence of the amine group (N-H) was located at the region. Furthermore looking at the structures of both products, the amine group was connected to carbon with the peaks at about 1308.72cm-1-1365.61cm-1 of the spectrum, which represents a C-N bond found in aromatic amine groups. Additionally, looking at the absorption peaks at about 1441.17cm-1-1441.98cm-1 between the two products, it is considered as the aromatic ring (benzene). Moving through the benzene ring, the spectrum shows the occurrence of the carbonyl group (C=O) that is part of ester group in both products. The absorption peaks measured was about 2824.37cm-1-2983.54cm-1. The carbonyl group of two products were also connected with a C-O bond which is part of the ester group. The peaks measured were 1167.10cm-1-1168.85cm-1 in both products. Conclusion: This experiment was considered failure in terms of the weight of the products. It is time-dependent to obtain more accurate yields and handling techniques. Although the melting points were not varied critically, the first product (benzocaine) was not able to achieve a pure product due to high melting point. Although this experiment was considered failure, we still achieved to synthesize 4-aminobenzoic acid to benzocaine and its derivative (isopropyl 4-aminobenzoic acid). Why do you think the pH of 8 cannot be exceeded in this experiment? In the experiment, the reactants carboxylic acid (4-aminobenzoic acid) and ethanol were used to synthesize esters (benzocaine, isopropyl 4-aminobenzoic acid) and water molecules as leaving group. The Fischer Esterification reaction mainly functions at pH less than 8. However, increasing the alkalinity atmosphere in this experiment implies the occurrence of additional –OH (hydroxide ions) in the reaction. The additional hydroxide ions could cause the reaction to reverse, making the reactants to be more favourable and fewer products will be form. As mentioned, Fischer Esterification usually functions at pH less than 8. However, increasing the alkalinity environment would cause the reaction saponification to dominate since the reaction is reversed. How do you expect the Rf value if you have been asked to the synthesize the butyl and pentyl derivatives? By synthesizing the butyl and pentyl derivatives the Rf value would differ since the polarity with the molecular structure is different. I assumed that the butyl and pentyl derivatives that were made could cause Rf value decreases as the alkyl chain increases. As the chain increases the polarity drops therefore the Rf value decreases. Reference: R. Milnard. The preparation of the local Anesthetic, Benzocaine, by an Esterification Reaction [Internet]. 2006 [updated 2006 October 18; cited 2014 March 7]. Available from: Cerner Multum Inc. Benzocaine Topical [Internet]. 2013 [updated 2013 May 15; cited 2014 March 7]. Available from: Clark Jim. Interpreting C-13 NMR Spectra? [Internet]. 2007 [updated 2007; cited 2014 March 7]. Available from: Clark Jim. The mechanism for the esterification reaction [Internet]. 2002 [updated 2004; cited 2014 March 7]. Available from:

Monday, August 19, 2019

Greek History Essay -- Essays Papers

Greek History "In this book, the result of my inquiries into history, I hope to†¦preserve the memory of the past by putting on record the astonishing achievements both of our own and of the Asiatic peoples†¦." With this "mission statement" Herodotus introduces his Histories, the first recorded history text in the western world. Using fragments of the past he reconstructs a picture of the whole; the objects of his researches included first-hand accounts and tales passed down through generations, physical remains and artifacts, and his own intelligence and creativity. Using sources such as these (though he cites nothing), Herodotus describes the foundation of the Theran colony of Cyrene, ca. 630 B.C.E.. In compiling this account, he may have used the colony's foundation decree. The facts given in this decree, which we know through a fourth century B.C.E. inscription, agree with those given in the Histories. The authenticity of this decree is strong. The decree could not have been the only source Herodotus consulted, for while certain details in the Histories agree with the foundation decree, Herodotus gives an account of Cyrene's founding containing much more description. Both accounts begin with Apollo's oracle at Delphi urging the Therans to found a new colony in Libya, on the coast of northern Africa. Already Herodotus' account goes into much more detail than the inscription. The inscription tells only that, on the oracular advice, Thera sends Battos with colonists to Libya. Herodotus, however, records how the Theran king Grinnos chose Battos, not a Theran by birth, to be the leader of the colonists. Herodotus' account continues with a description of a long delay in the found... ...Works Cited addendum to the Histories, and scholars have often maligned his work for taking many liberties with sparse evidence to flesh out the work. Such scholars can, however, use facts and artifacts known to modern archaeology to confirm his writing, and the inscription of the Theran decree does verify the Histories on several counts. Other aspects of the events related in the Histories, such as Herodotus' record of the dead at Marathon, archaeologists have proven through research and excavation. Alone the colonization decree cannot completely prove the truth of Herodotus' account, for he provides many aspects to the story which lie beyond the scope of the decree, but it does serve to reign in the skepticism with which several classicists regard the Histories. BIBLIOGRAPHY Demand, Nancy. A History of Ancient Greece. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Marketing - The Pet Food Market Essay -- Business Management Studies

1. Describe the nature of the ‘exchange process’ which marketing facilitates in up to 100 words. The ‘exchange process’ is seen as the basic principle of marketing and involves the simple concept of needs and demands. In the world of marketing this can be any organization offering a product, service or even an idea. The customer then agrees to pay an amount of money for these goods. The whole exchange process works under the important condition that both parties value the goods offered by the other party to that extent that they are willing to fulfil the demands of the other party in return. The satisfaction gained from a transaction can lead to further purchases. 2. Explain how the pet food market is structured. Describe how a number of local outlets support this structure. The pet food market is structured into three main sectors, which consists of Dog food, Cat food and other pet food. The market share of Dog food (50%) and Cat food (47%) is nearly the same, whereas other pet foods only contributes to 3 % of the total market of  £ 1,684 million (Key Note Ltd 2003). Furthermore Pet food can be categorized generally according to their functions, which are: - Complete food: Provides all vitamins and minerals needed - Complementary food: To be combined with other foods, for example meat or biscuits - Snack, treat or training aid Within the Dog and Cat Food sectors a further segmentation can be found: The moist and semi-moist se... Marketing - The Pet Food Market Essay -- Business Management Studies 1. Describe the nature of the ‘exchange process’ which marketing facilitates in up to 100 words. The ‘exchange process’ is seen as the basic principle of marketing and involves the simple concept of needs and demands. In the world of marketing this can be any organization offering a product, service or even an idea. The customer then agrees to pay an amount of money for these goods. The whole exchange process works under the important condition that both parties value the goods offered by the other party to that extent that they are willing to fulfil the demands of the other party in return. The satisfaction gained from a transaction can lead to further purchases. 2. Explain how the pet food market is structured. Describe how a number of local outlets support this structure. The pet food market is structured into three main sectors, which consists of Dog food, Cat food and other pet food. The market share of Dog food (50%) and Cat food (47%) is nearly the same, whereas other pet foods only contributes to 3 % of the total market of  £ 1,684 million (Key Note Ltd 2003). Furthermore Pet food can be categorized generally according to their functions, which are: - Complete food: Provides all vitamins and minerals needed - Complementary food: To be combined with other foods, for example meat or biscuits - Snack, treat or training aid Within the Dog and Cat Food sectors a further segmentation can be found: The moist and semi-moist se...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Reducing the Harm of America?s Drug Problem Essay -- essays research p

The use and abuse of non-prescription drugs has been a problem in America since colonial times. Historically, the reaction to this problem has been the enforcement of prohibition laws and providing total abstinence education. This has resulted in big business in America; according to the United States Office of National Drug Control Policy, the federal government spent $19.2 billion dollars in 2003 on the war on drugs (1). Unfortunately, the abstinence based education and prohibition laws that are incorporated in the war on drugs have been wholly ineffective in slowing the demand for illicit drugs, and have had the opposite effects of driving up demand, street value, and drug-related crimes. The U.S. war on drugs bases its success on a decrease, and eventual eradication of the prevalence of drug use, a goal that has yet to be met. Detroit chief of police Jerry Oliver, in a 2002 interview with ABC news, said â€Å"Clearly, we’re losing the war on drugs in this country [and] i t’s insanity to keep doing the same thing over and over again† (qtd. in Stossel). As the war on drugs continues to fail and cost this country billions of dollars, it has become clear that a new approach to the problem is needed. By changing the focus from trying to decrease the overall use of drugs to focusing on decreasing the negative side effects (both personal and societal) of drug use, our country will finally be able to make significant steps forward in our drug problem. This approach is known as harm reduction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Harm reduction is a multi-faceted philosophy that includes various strategies to help lessen the negative impact of drug abuse on our society. These negative impacts include death, disease, suffering and crime. One of the basic assumptions which harm reduction is based on is â€Å"there has never been, is not now, and never will be a drug-free society† (Drug Policy Alliance). Some of the approaches endorsed by harm reduction are science-based, rather than scare tactic education, treatment for drug addicts instead of imprisonment, and the reduction of health risks for addicts still actively using drugs. The programs which have grown out of these ideals will not only reduce the cost of the drug war through reduction of imprisonment and law enforcement costs, but will reduce the spread of diseases associated with drug use such as HIV/AIDS.   Ã‚   ... .... Drug Policy Alliance. â€Å"Treatment vs. Incarceration† 2004. 21 July 2004. Myers, Jim. â€Å"Just Say Less.† Youth Today May 2003. Pew Research Center. â€Å"Interdiction and Incarceration Still Top Remedies† 21 March 2001. 25 July 2004. Riley, Diane & O’Hare, Pat. â€Å"Harm Reduction: Policy and Practice.† Prevention Researcher 2000. 25 July 2004. Rosenbaum, Martha. â€Å"Kids, Drugs, and Drug Education, A Harm Reduction Approach† 1996. 22 July 2004. Stossel, John. â€Å"Just Say No: Government’s War on Drugs Fails.† ABC 30 July, 2002. 25 July 2004. United States. Office of National Drug Control Policy. National Drug Control Strategy: FY 2003 Budget Summary. Feb 2002. 25 July 2004. United States. Partnership for a Drug-Free America. A Snapshot of the Teen Drug Problem in America Today 2002. 25 July 2004. < Templates/Article.asp?ws=PDFA&vol=1&grp=NewsCenter&cat=Feature+Stories&top=Articles&tit=A+Snapshot+of+the+Teen+Drug+Problem+in+America+Today> Zernike, Kate. â€Å"Anti-Drug Program Says it will Adopt a New Strategy.† The New York Times on the Web 15 Feb. 2001. 25 July 2004.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

What part does competition play in people’s daily life

What part does competition play in people's daily lives? Playing sports is a necessary habit in everyone's ordinary life. Playing sports not only Improves our health and wellbeing but It also teaches us important lessons of our dally lives. Tennis, Cricket, Football and Basketball are kinds of sports which require more physical ability while chess and poker are the types of sports that require more mental skills. Different sports teach us many lessons of life while keeping us healthy and active.Playing sports not only conditions the body, but also builds social skills, confidence and skills required In everyday living. Take playing basketball for example, In order to play. You must learn how to dribble the ball, how to shoot and most Importantly. How to pass the ball to your team mate with success. This builds teamwork by showing that working together will achieve much more than working alone. When playing sport, the results may not be as important as the experience you would have ga ined, which will greatly influence your life quality and the way you handle things.Sport caches us basic principles of daily life which are required to succeed in a job too. Passing the ball to a team mate to win as a team is like working with your colleagues to succeed at work, shooting a goal is like doing your part for the team and dribbling the ball past the opposition is like overcoming hurdles you will face in your life. Sports that require more mental skills such as chess and poker teach you logical thinking and how to keep a calm mind in difficult situations that arise in life. In chess for example, you must carefully plan every move to outsmart your opponent.When here is an intense situation, you can't afford to be nervous or anxious, you must have a calm mind and make decisions on how to tackle the problem. The same goes for real life. Winning in sports gives you an abundance of confidence which inspires you to keep playing and makes you feel good about yourself. Yet losin g helps too, It makes you set a goal and work towards it similarly to life, this could be getting a certain award or winning a competition. Playing sports like chess and poker teach you to make plans at every step and prepare for the Incidences that occur at every moment wrought life.Sport Is the most interesting way of learning. Sometimes we learn greatly from It even without even noticing It. It does have some negatives such as Injuries but these are greatly overpowered by the benefits. It Is a great preparation for your future life while obviously keeping you fit and healthy. BY toadied improves our health and wellbeing but it also teaches us important lessons of our daily lives. Tennis, Cricket, Football and Basketball are kinds of sports which require and skills required in everyday living.Take playing basketball for example, in order to lay, you must learn how to dribble the ball, how to shoot and most importantly, how teaches us basic principles of daily life which are requir ed to succeed in a Job too. To keep playing and makes you feel good about yourself. Yet losing helps too, it makes make plans at every step and prepare for the incidences that occur at every moment Sport is the most interesting way of learning. Sometimes we learn greatly from it even without even noticing it. It does have some negatives such as injuries but these are greatly overpowered by the benefits. It is a great preparation for your future life

Friday, August 16, 2019

Philippine National Hero, Jose Rizal Essay

This film pictures events and unknown facts about the life of the Philippine National Hero, Jose Rizal. When I am watching the film I understand the story clearer than reading it, the scenes played in the film made my mind and vision clearer. They’ve explain the life of Rizal clearly even though some information is not that important but still they are saying it for the student’s or the viewer can understand more the life of Rizal. In watching the films I’ve realize the things that a man can do. The film started from Rizal telling what had been his life as a young boy was. Unlike any boy, Rizal came from a rich family which can be considered as principalia. His parents were considered to be a good example in their own ways. He had a big family with 10 siblings, nine sisters and one brother named Ponciano. Rizal was describe as a young boy whose eagerness to learn was of undeniable. At his young age of nine, he was asked to live in manila to study. He took entrance examinations and finally schooled at prestigious campuses in Manila by that time. He studied first at Ateneo de Manila University then continue it at University of Sto. Thomas. Rizal also continued his studies abroad and he was able to visit many countries. Rizal demonstrated great talent in literature, philosophy and also in arts. He received awards in some contests that he joined and successfully won the major ones at times. As a student, I can say that Rizal was very hard working and dedicated. He was an engineer, sculptor, painter, ophthalmologist and a writer. I can’t believe that a man can be that good, a man can do many things, and a man can defend his own country. He will not achieve all of that without his friends, of course.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Power In The First Part Of A Clockwork Orange Essay

The opening of the novel is the line â€Å"What’s it going to be then, ey? † This is clearly something that is said by someone in an authoritative position and we learn in the next sentence that this is Alex. He is our narrator and this gives him a certain amount of power as he can choose what he wants to tell us as readers. Burgess also shows Alex’s power through the various violent attacks he perpetrates on people who we would consider to be in a position of more authority than Alex is in our own society. The first of these instances is the attack upon a schoolteacher, which is a clear and obvious indicator that this society is very wrong. At the tender age of fifteen, it would be considered totally inconceivable that Alex would not only attack, but also humiliate a man who relies upon respect from youths in order to do his job. The physical power the gang have over the teacher is almost a way of compensating for Alex and his gang feeling threatened intellectually and in this sense the teacher is the more powerful. This idea of physical versus intellectual power is explored again when the gang leave the town centre to seek victims in the suburbs. When they find the writer and his wife, they destroy the book and beat the couple into teary subordination. These actions are lead by Alex who is portrayed as an almost psychotic intellectual and so dislikes the idea of not understanding the â€Å"fair gloopy title† of the book. I believe he is also prone to paranoia because he gets angry at the merest suggestion of someone being more intelligent or cultured than himself. As a totally egocentric way of asserting his power, Alex also beats up a drunk who is stumbling around and singing because he found him â€Å"disgusting†. This does not show any correlation to the other attacks as there is obviously no intellectual challenge from this man and so this attack is purely a confidence boost and has no real reason at all. Aside from their physical power, Alex and his gang also command a certain amount of fear amongst the elderly folk at the pub they visit. They are able, through brash bribery and intimidation, to get a room full of adults to comply with their wishes fairly easily even though no violence is used, or even suggested. This shows that the gangs of youths roaming the streets are infamous and that the civilised society they prey upon is doing little, if anything, to stop them. The power presented to us here, or lack of it, is the state’s diminished power over criminals of a violent and numerous nature. This is further demonstrated when Alex and his gang come across a rival gang in a desolate place where their laws are obeyed e. g. survival of the fittest. The power each gang has over the other is decided in a very fitting way considering what is done with this power because the gang who can cause the most injury and pain wins the power to carry on doing so to other people outside the gang wars. One such unfortunate victim is the old woman who is the last of Alex’s victims as a free man. The gang, and Alex, assume they have unrivalled power over the old woman not only because of her age but also because they see themselves as untouchably strong in fights and aggression. However, Alex’s power seems to be with his gang because, contrary to his own beliefs, he finds he cannot do the robbery alone and is shocked to find the old woman beating him with a stick. This is a very strange thing to happen to Alex as he sees himself as above the possibility of actually getting hurt. However, it is clear that this invulnerable character is only as such when he is supported by his gang, who are given very little credit throughout the first half of the novel for their various roles within the crimes. The utterly surreal struggle for power and control between the old woman and the young but hardened criminal ends with a swift blow to the head from Alex and so we see his physical power keeping him in control yet again. However, the authorities finally get Alex under their control through (ironically) fairly violent methods. The police are portrayed as fighting fire with fire, so to speak, as they beat Alex and humiliate him just as he had done to so many before. This is cleverly done by Burgess as this lets the reader see how these people, who are fighting against Alex and the culture he represents, are actually no better than him in a moral sense as they get their power in exactly the same way e. g. through violent beatings and intimidation. Another example of role reversal is the relationship between P. R Deltoid and Alex both before and after his arrest. Prior to the arrest, Alex was very dismissive of P. R Deltoid’s warnings and cared little about what he had to say, as he was untouchable and would never be caught, as he was such an intelligent young man. However once he realises how much trouble he really is in, he becomes very meek and humble before P. R Deltoid and asks him for help. It is then that P. R Deltoid becomes the one who does not care and, in his position of power over Alex, spits in face. This is an act usually saved for use by the very lowest of people and is yet more evidence of the hypocritical use of humiliating actions on Alex by the people who are supposed to be putting an end to these actions. Throughout the first part of the novel, Alex uses barbaric force and pure physical strength to overpower his enemies and victims. He sees this as proof of his own undeniable strength when, in fact, it is down to his gang that he is not harmed by his numerous encounters with violence. His egotistical delusions lead him to believe that he can impose his power upon someone by himself and this over-confidence ultimately concretes his arrest. From this point, the readers of this novel would expect to see the police processing and punishing Alex harshly but effectively and humanely. Instead, we realise that the police are so used to seeing the violence that they no longer try to avoid it and instead resort to it themselves. We are shown that power has changed hands dramatically over the course of the first part of the novel but we can also recognise that the way in which the power is gained and exerted does not change in the slightest as it passes from criminals to civilians to policemen. This is a very interesting comment on the dystopian society presented to us in this book and serves as a powerful warning for our own future.